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NURTURING CODING SKILLS IN YOUNG CHILDREN

Dr Swati Popat Vats writes on CODING IN KINDERGARTEN NURTURING CODING SKILLS IN YOUNG CHILDREN.

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What do Froebel’s gifts, HOT, STEM, guessing and estimation games have in common?

They are all the foundation of learning coding and robotics in the early years!

The first six years are brain development years and it is during this time that the brain learns about patterns, sequences, and problem solving and thinking skills—all skills required in coding!

It is time for our early years programmes to adopt what the world is calling, ‘a new literacy’- coding. Children have become digital natives, which means born in the digital era and are exposed to technology and gadgets from the time they are born (the first time a parent points a camera/phone at them!) many of the toys they play with belong to ‘the internet of toys’. By the time a preschooler joins the job market 20 years from now, all the jobs will require some or other kind of programming. Technology will be used for everything…almost everything. We teach preschoolers to read, write, count, we teach them about the world around them – animals, birds, insects etc. and we are forgetting that the world around them now is full of gadgets and technology. Teaching them how to safely engage with technology and informing them how this technology works, is the need of the hour. It is time to ensure that these children who are presently in early years programs are exposed to ‘technology literacy’ and are aware that machines should not be making us do things all the time but that we can tell a machine what to do…that machines listen to US!

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What is a code? It is a set of instructions for a computer. What is coding? It is the process of creating step-by-step instructions a computer understands and needs in order for its programs to work. The foundation of coding is: Pre-coding activities which are developmentally appropriate games and activities in which children explore some of the concepts involved in coding in ways that are meaningful to them. However, coding in Kindergarten, is not about computer programming, we are talking about laying a foundation, about training their brains to think and understand SYSTEMS, PATTERNS, and INSTRUCTIONS through role play, games, puzzles and board games.

So why start from early years? Isn’t it too early to understand the concept of coding? Well, no, because coding is nothing but understanding sorting and classifying, recognition of same and different, recognition of shapes, ability to make sets, sorting, see sets within sets, patterning, ordering and sequencing, one to one correspondence, number value, number counting, playing games of guessing and estimation, etc. And all of these are already part of children’s every day play and exploration and an integral part of readiness curriculum in early years.

Coding is not different from how children play or learn, coding is already an integral part of the exploration that children indulge in during play, it is time for early years educators and parents to connect the dots and see how children learn coding while playing and ensure that play makes a big comeback to early years learning!

Fredrich Froebel the father of kindergarten, designed gifts, and occupations for young children. These were designed to make children see patterns and shapes in their environment and in their play and understand the connections between these patterns and shapes, his quote, "It would prove a boon to our children and a blessing to coming generations if we could see that we possess a great oppressive load of extraneous, merely external information and culture; that we foolishly seek to increase from day to day," is more relevant today than ever before.

I have included Froebel’s gifts in the coding curriculum that I have designed (‘Start Coding with Jumbo’) for early years. Froebel discovered that brain development is most dramatic between birth and age three, and recognized the importance of beginning play based learning, earlier than was then practiced.

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Froebel’s gifts help children see form, shape, patterns, connections, and this is exactly what the learning and understanding of coding requires. It requires the five processes of problem solving, reasoning, communication, connections, and representation. These are critical to the young child and his or her understanding of coding and robotics, and are nurtured when children play (are occupied) with Froebel’s gifts.

Froebel designed Gifts and Occupations and the difference between Froebel’s gifts and occupations is that Gifts can be returned to their original state after play (whole to parts and parts to whole) whereas occupations are craft activities and cannot be returned to their original shape. According to Froebel, the child’s desire to play is nature’s way of stimulating the brain to grow and that is why it is important for us to realize that play is the fuel for brain development. Froebel’s gifts are a gateway for children to learn to play with Math concepts, Mathematics was more than an intellectual pursuit to Froebel it was the language of the universe. His gifts were carefully designed so that children can experience three-dimensional, then two-dimensional and then move to lines, edges and points and then understand how lines, edges and points make a three-dimensional shape. So, learning actually comes ‘full circle’ when children play with Froebel’s gifts.

So, in his gifts one to six children experience three-dimensional solids, which represent whole forms of the physical world. While playing with gifts 7 to 9 children experience 2 dimensional shapes, the sides of solids, the edges of solids, lines and points. Froebel designed 3 different ways to play with the gifts, 1 Forms of life, 2 Forms of knowledge and 3 Forms of beauty. In Forms Of Life children can create something from their world (around them) using all of the gift pieces. In Forms of Knowledge, adults help children see the math in the gifts, count the sides, see the difference between a sphere, a cylinder and a square, hear the sound a particular block makes when dropped on the floor etc. Whereas in Forms of Beauty children make abstract designs using the gifts, here Froebel devised two rules, “always use every piece and modify but never destroy a design”. If the child wants to change a design then the child has to find a way to modify an existing design in stages to arrive at the new design or concept. By playing with Froebel’s gifts a child builds a foundation of symbolic learning by internalizing these play experiences. Playing with Froebel’s gifts help children perceive the geometric blocks of the world and help nurture the very skills required for a coder, namely –Understanding, Creativity, Logical thinking, Remembering, Working with others, Taking risks and questioning.

The coding curriculum for early years that I have designed is based completely on play and because it is a foundation for understanding coding, I have included coding activities in all areas of play be it Block area, Dramatic play, Cooking area, Art area, Playground, Water play, Sand play, Music & movement, etc. The foundation of coding for early years should also start with Encouraging HOT (Higher Order Thinking) skills

Encourage children to notice things, play games like where is the teddy hiding.

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Encourage children to describe things they see or do, during nature walks or during water and sand play.

Ask ‘what’ questions before ‘why’ questions- what is happening to the sand when we mix it with water?

Encourage one to one correspondence activities.

Take photos of the child’s environment and see if children can recognize them. Click photos of each child’s eyes and see if they can recognize their own, their friend’s….

‘Start Coding with Jumbo’, curriculum is SCREEN FREE and engages children through HANDS ON LEARNING, through engaging games and activities that involve:

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Directional games involving location and movement like board games

Treasure hunt

Giving directions to peers during pretend play

Games using grids and maps

Some coding activities that young children learn about in ‘Start Coding with Jumbo’ are –

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Decompose or break it down- how to break down a problem into smaller parts to solve the problem- Gamepick up all the blocks from around the classroom, then pick up all the blocks from around the classroom before the sand timer stops, and then pick up all the blocks from around the classroom, before the sand timer stops and only 3 people can be used to pick the blocks.

Algorithm- a list of steps needed to follow or complete a task, play games of missing instructions teach the doll the steps of brushing teeth.

Debugging is when you go looking for mistakes or bugs in your programworksheets for find the mistake, find what is missing.

Sequence- is the order the program has to follow- put the story in the right sequence.

Pattern- a pattern is what you see when something is the same over and over- what comes after, what comes before- patterning games, Froebel gifts.

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Loop- a special bit of code that repeats over and over again- during singing and musical play time.

In the ‘Start Coding with Jumbo’ curriculum, the children also learn about robots and robotics. Young children are first given game instructions to move on a specified pattern during outdoor play, in this they learn how to follow instructions and move their body to complete the game or the maze given. Then they play in pairs and give instructions to each other, they role play being a programmer and a gamer, the programmer gives coding commands and the gamer follows the commands and moves accordingly.

Young children then play with puppets to understand how ‘they’ can make the puppet move. They explore the difference between hand puppets, finger puppets, string puppets, and shadow puppets. They ‘program’ the puppets in a puppet show. And then move on to games that require them to build robots and program robots to move around a grid. They make grids, place the story characters in the grid, and retell the story using the robot by making it move to each step of the story. Children do this by using directional cards/buttons to give instructions to the robot to move up, down, left and right, forward, back.

The most important role of early years educators and parents in fostering learning of coding is to provide the stimulation and encouragement to help children develop and practice their own thinking, to learn by DOING, to make mistakes, to learn from them. When we support children in this, we help children take big steps towards becoming competent, confident, code thinkers! That is why I have worked on a foundational curriculum/program to teach young children about coding and robotics, understanding the foundation of coding and robotics before they start programming and using robots. Understanding that humans program any technology or gadget that we use and thus we have control on how, how much and when to use it.

The new millennium requires children to live in an ever changing technology filled world, parents and educators now realize that childhood is the most important time in a child’s education We need logical thinking and ‘Start Coding with Jumbo’ helps children see the interconnectedness of things and patterns in their physical and technological world.

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Dr Swati Popat Vats is the President of Podar Education Network, she is a ‘tinkerer’ and has always advocated for developmentally appropriate use of technology for young children. She is the first to design an early years’ curriculum for coding and robotics called ‘Start Coding with Jumbo’. She believes that play is the way children learn and coding and robotics are a great combination of tinkering in play! She is a big follower of Froebel, Montessori, Vygotsky, Piaget and Gijubhai Badeka and her curriculum on coding and robotics for early years is hugely influenced by their work, especially Froebel’s gifts. She is also the President of Early Childhood Association. For any questions on her coding and robotics curriculum for early years she can be contacted on [email protected] or 7506639870 (messages only)

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UNESCO Report Highlights Need for Boost in India’s Upper Secondary Education

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The recent UNESCO report, “SDG 4 Scorecard Progress Report on National Benchmarks: Focus on Teachers,” reveals that while India is excelling in primary education, the upper secondary education sector requires significant improvements. The report, published by UNESCO, shows that India’s primary education completion rate is at an impressive 94%, nearing its 2025 benchmark of 99%. However, the upper secondary completion rate lags at 51%, against the 2025 benchmark of 84%.

India’s performance in pre-primary participation is also notable, scoring 91%, close to its target of 95%. Conversely, the country struggles with out-of-school rates and lacks sufficient data to assess minimum learning proficiency accurately.

In terms of school internet connectivity, India is making average progress across all educational levels, indicating room for enhancement. The country performs well in the pre-primary teacher training sector, meeting its 2025 benchmark of 95%.

Overall, while India’s primary education sector is performing well, the secondary education sector, especially the upper secondary level, needs focused attention to meet the set benchmarks. The report highlights that 79% of countries have submitted national targets for SDG 4 indicators, with India making strides in some areas but still requiring significant efforts in others.

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Embracing Emojis in the Classroom: A Fun and Polite Approach to Modern Learning

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The image is generated using AI

Today, on World Emoji Day, let’s celebrate these small, expressive icons that have become an integral part of our digital communication. While some argue that emojis threaten the sanctity of language, there’s a fun, quirky side to these tiny pictures that can actually enhance classroom interactions, making them more relevant, polite, and engaging.

Remember the thrill of getting a gold star on your homework? That star wasn’t just a sticker; it was a symbol of achievement, recognition, and encouragement. In many ways, emojis serve a similar purpose. They convey emotions and reactions succinctly and can add a personal touch to written communication. So, why not harness the power of emojis to make our classrooms more dynamic and student-friendly?

1. Enhancing Feedback: Traditionally, teachers use phrases like “good job” or “well done” to praise students. But imagine the added excitement if those words were accompanied by a clapping hands emoji 👏, a star ⭐, or even a trophy 🏆. Such visual cues can amplify the impact of positive feedback, making it more memorable and encouraging for students. Conversely, gentle reminders can be softened with a thoughtful emoji. For instance, a neutral face 😐 or a thinking face 🤔 could be used to indicate that a student might need to revisit a particular concept without causing undue stress or discouragement.

2. Encouraging Polite Communication: Emojis can also help maintain a polite and respectful tone in classroom discussions. For example, if a student disagrees with a peer, using a handshake emoji 🤝 or a smiling face 😊 can convey their differing opinion respectfully. This approach can foster a culture of kindness and consideration, crucial for productive and positive learning environments.

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3. Making Learning Fun: Integrating emojis into lesson plans can make learning more interactive and enjoyable. Teachers can create emoji-based quizzes where students match emojis to historical events, literary characters, or scientific concepts. For example, an apple 🍎 and a book 📖 could be used in a quiz about famous inventors, prompting students to guess Isaac Newton. These activities not only make lessons more engaging but also encourage creative thinking.

4. Bridging Language Gaps: In classrooms with diverse linguistic backgrounds, emojis can serve as a universal language, helping bridge communication gaps. A thumbs-up 👍, a heart ❤️, or a smiling face 😀 can convey appreciation and support across different languages, fostering inclusivity and mutual understanding.

5. Digital Citizenship: As students increasingly navigate the digital world, teaching them about appropriate emoji use is crucial. Educators can incorporate lessons on digital etiquette, highlighting how emojis can enhance communication when used appropriately but can also be misinterpreted or cause misunderstandings if overused or used incorrectly.

6. Custom Emojis for Classroom Culture: Teachers can create custom emojis that reflect their unique classroom culture. For instance, a specific emoji could symbolize a class mascot, a special event, or a unique classroom achievement. This personal touch can strengthen the sense of community and belonging among students.

In conclusion, emojis are not a threat to language; rather, they are an evolution of it. They offer a unique and fun way to enrich classroom communication, making feedback more impactful, interactions more polite, and learning more enjoyable. So, on this World Emoji Day, let’s embrace these expressive icons and unlock their potential to make our classrooms brighter, kinder, and more engaging places to learn. 🌟🎉📚

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Workshop on Writing Textbooks in Bharatiya Bhasha for Higher Education Inaugurated by Dr. Sukanta Majumdar

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Image Source- PIB

The Minister of State for Education, Dr. Sukanta Majumdar has inaugurated a workshop for Vice Chancellors on the writing of textbooks in Bharatiya Bhasha for higher education in New Delhi. Organised by the University Grants Commission (UGC) and Bharatiya Bhasha Samiti (BBS), the event saw the presence of eminent academicians, including Shri K. Sanjay Murthy, Prof. Chamu Krishna Shastry, and Prof. M. Jagadesh Kumar.

Dr. Majumdar emphasized the importance of developing study materials in Indian languages to reflect the country’s linguistic diversity and ensure accessible education. He highlighted the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020’s role in inspiring youth and expressed gratitude to Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Education Minister Dharmendra Pradhan for their visionary leadership.

Prof. Chamu Krishna Shastry and Prof. M. Jagadesh Kumar shared insights on developing a Bharatiya Bhasha Ecosystem. During the valedictory session, Shri K. Sanjay Murthy launched three projects: ASMITA, Bahubhasha Shabdkosh, and Real-time Translation Architecture. These initiatives aim to produce 22,000 books in 22 scheduled languages, create a grand repository of multilingual dictionaries, and enhance real-time translation capabilities.

Over 150 Vice Chancellors participated in the workshop, organized into 12 groups to plan and develop textbooks in 12 regional languages. The discussions focused on creating new textbooks, establishing standard vocabularies, and improving current textbooks with an emphasis on Indian Knowledge Systems (IKS). The event concluded with a Q&A session addressing queries from participants.

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Nurturing Natural Skills: Empowering Youth for the Future

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On World Youth Skills Day celebrated on 15 July globally, it’s essential to recognize the incredible potential children inherently possess. Children are naturally curious, energetic, and less afraid of taking risks—qualities that, if nurtured correctly, can form the bedrock of their future success. By identifying and developing these skills, we can empower them to become resilient and adaptable adults ready to face the challenges of the future.

Curiosity: The Catalyst for Learning

Curiosity drives children to explore, ask questions, and seek out new experiences. This innate desire to understand the world around them is a powerful tool for learning. Encouraging curiosity through inquiry-based learning and fostering an environment where questions are welcomed can significantly enhance their educational experience. For instance, project-based learning allows children to dive deep into subjects that interest them, promoting critical thinking and problem-solving skills.

Energy: Channeling Enthusiasm into Productivity

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Children are bursting with energy, which, when directed correctly, can lead to incredible productivity and creativity. Schools and parents can harness this energy by providing varied activities that challenge both mind and body. Extracurricular activities like sports, music, and arts not only keep them engaged but also teach them discipline, teamwork, and perseverance. Moreover, incorporating movement into learning, such as through kinesthetic activities, can help maintain their focus and enhance memory retention.

Fearlessness: Embracing Risks and Learning from Failure

Children’s fearlessness and willingness to take risks are qualities that can drive innovation. Creating a safe environment where they can experiment, fail, and learn from their mistakes is crucial. By teaching resilience and the value of perseverance, we can help them develop a growth mindset. Activities that encourage trial and error, such as coding, robotics, and creative writing, can instill confidence and the ability to view failures as opportunities for growth.

Developing These Skills into Strengths

To turn these innate skills into lasting strengths, it is essential to provide continuous support and opportunities for development. Teachers and parents play a pivotal role in this process by:

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  1. Providing Diverse Learning Experiences: Exposure to various subjects and activities helps children discover their interests and strengths. This broadens their horizons and fosters a love for lifelong learning.
  2. Encouraging Collaborative Learning: Group projects and team activities teach children the importance of collaboration, communication, and empathy. These skills are invaluable in both personal and professional settings.
  3. Promoting Self-Reflection: Encouraging children to reflect on their experiences helps them understand their strengths and areas for improvement. This practice can build self-awareness and intrinsic motivation.
  4. Integrating Technology: Leveraging technology in education can make learning more engaging and accessible. Interactive tools and resources can cater to different learning styles and keep children excited about their educational journey.

By recognizing and nurturing the natural skills of curiosity, energy, and fearlessness in children, we can transform these qualities into powerful strengths. This approach not only prepares them for future challenges but also equips them with the resilience and adaptability needed in a rapidly changing world. On World Youth Skills Day, let’s commit to fostering these attributes, ensuring that the youth of today become the innovative leaders of tomorrow.

 

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Celebrating Nikola Tesla: A Beacon for Transforming Education

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Nikola Tesla | Image Source- Encyclopedia of Humanities

Cultivating Curiosity and Imagination

Tesla’s success was driven by his boundless curiosity and vivid imagination. He often emphasized the importance of nurturing these traits, stating, “The gift of mental power comes from God, divine being, and if we concentrate our minds on that truth, we become in tune with this great power.” Encouraging students to question the world around them and imagine the possibilities beyond the obvious can foster a generation of innovative thinkers. Incorporating more open-ended projects and inquiry-based learning can help in this regard.

Embracing Failure as a Learning Tool

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Hands-On Learning and Experimentation

Tesla’s approach to learning was hands-on. He believed in experimenting and learning from practical experiences. Modern education systems can draw from this by integrating more laboratory work, maker spaces, and real-world problem-solving activities into the curriculum. Students should be encouraged to tinker, build, and experiment, thus applying theoretical knowledge to practical situations.

Learning as an Ongoing Process

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Maharashtra Government Announces Free Higher Education for EWS, SEBC, OBC Girls

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Maharashtra's CM Eknath Shinde | Image Source- PTI

Ahead of the upcoming assembly elections in the state, the Maharashtra government has announced free higher education for girls from Economically Weaker Section (EWS), Socially and Economically Backward Classes (SEBC), and Other Backward Classes (OBC). The policy, which also waives tuition and examination fees for orphaned students regardless of gender, was formalised through a government resolution (GR) during a cabinet meeting chaired by Chief Minister Eknath Shinde. The initiative will commence from the academic year 2024-25 and is projected to cost Rs 906 crore.

The GR states that female students seeking admission to recognised vocational courses through the Centralised Admission Process in government colleges, aided private colleges, semi-aided private colleges, non-aided colleges, polytechnic, autonomous government universities, and open universities will benefit from this scheme. The courses covered include those run by the departments of higher and technical education, medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, animal husbandry, pisciculture, and dairy development. However, students from private autonomous universities, self-funded universities, or those enrolling through management and institutional quota will not be eligible for the scheme.

Female students whose annual family income is Rs 8 lakh or less and who belong to the EWS, SEBC, and OBC categories are eligible for the fee waiver. Both new admissions and current students pursuing their degrees can avail of this facility. This initiative is part of a broader women-focused policy by the Maharashtra government, aiming to enhance educational access and opportunities for underprivileged female students in the state.

(Source- PTI)

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Chhattisgarh Introduces Local Language Primary Education in Tribal Areas

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In line with the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, the Chhattisgarh government has embarked on an initiative to provide primary education in local languages and dialects in remote tribal regions. Chief Minister Vishnu Deo Sai has directed the State Education Department to develop and distribute bilingual books in 18 local languages free of charge. This initiative aims to enhance the quality of educational resources and ensure that children receive education in their mother tongue or local language up to the fifth standard, as recommended by NEP 2020.

During the state-level ‘Shala Praveshotsav’ programme at Bagiya village in the tribal-dominated Jashpur district, Chief Minister Sai highlighted the importance of this initiative. He emphasised that providing education in local languages will not only improve educational outcomes but also help preserve local culture and traditions.

The ‘Shala Praveshotsav’ is an annual event aimed at encouraging school enrolment at the start of the academic session. This year, the event was moved from Raipur to Bagiya, the CM’s hometown, to underscore the significance of the new initiative.

An official from the Education Department mentioned that in tribal areas, primary school exams can now be taken in local languages and dialects. However, exams for higher classes will continue to be conducted in Hindi and English. This move is part of a broader effort to boost the literacy rate in Chhattisgarh, which currently stands at 70.28 percent, below the national average of 76 percent.

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NCERT Introduces ‘Poorvi’ For Class 6: A New English Textbook With Indian Focus

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The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has launched a new English textbook for class 6 titled “Poorvi”. Unlike its predecessor, “Honeysuckle”, which predominantly featured stories by non-Indian authors, “Poorvi” includes nine prose pieces by Indian authors and five poems by non-Indian authors, as reported by the Indian Express.

This new textbook aligns with the National Curriculum Framework 2023 and the National Education Policy 2020, incorporating revised chapters that reflect an Indian context. The previous textbook, “Honeysuckle,” contained eight poems (seven by non-Indian authors) and eight prose pieces (five by non-Indian authors), along with stories by Indian authors Munshi Premchand and Ruskin Bond.

Significantly, the term “Bharat” appears for the first time in an NCERT textbook, mentioned 19 times in a chapter titled “Culture and Tradition,” while “India” is mentioned seven times. This chapter also features a section called “Hamara Bharat, Incredible India!” emphasising India’s identity as “Bharat.”

Additionally, “Poorvi” includes chapters on the uses of spices beyond cooking and the benefits of yoga, highlighting aspects of Indian culture and tradition. NCERT had initially planned to release new textbooks for classes 3 and 6 earlier this year but encountered delays. The class 3 textbooks are now available.

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Joseph Emmanuel, Director (Academics) at CBSE, advised schools to adopt these new syllabi and textbooks for classes 3 and 6 in place of the previous NCERT textbooks until the year 2023, as per a statement to PTI.

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National Teachers’ Award 2024: Self-Nominations Open Until 15th July

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Online self-nominations are now being accepted for the National Teachers’ Awards 2024 via the Ministry of Education’s portal until 15th July 2024. This year, 50 exemplary teachers will be selected through a three-stage process at District, State, and National levels. The prestigious awards will be conferred by the President of India on Teachers’ Day, 5th September 2024, at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi.

Eligibility:

  • School teachers and Heads of Schools from recognized primary, middle, high, and higher secondary schools run by State Govt., UT Administrations, local bodies, and Private schools affiliated with State/UT Boards.
  • Teachers from Central Govt. Schools like Kendriya Vidyalayas, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas, Sainik Schools, schools run by the Atomic Energy Education Society, Eklavya Model Residential Schools, and those affiliated with CBSE and CISCE are eligible.

Objective: The award aims to recognize the unique contributions of outstanding teachers who have significantly improved the quality of school education and enriched their students’ lives.

For more details and to submit your nomination, visit the Ministry of Education’s portal.

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Australia’s Doubling of Student Visa Fees to Impact Indian Applicants

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Image Source- Envato Elements

Australia has more than doubled its international student visa fee from AU$710 (approximately ₹38,000) to AU$1,600 (approximately ₹86,000), a move set to significantly affect Indian students, who represent the second-largest group of international students in the country. The increase is aimed at curbing migration and funding key initiatives in education and migration.

Australia’s Home Minister, Clare O’Neil, stated that the changes, effective from July 1, 2024, are intended to restore integrity to the international education system and ensure a fairer migration system. This hike comes amidst other measures to curb the misuse of student visas and migration loopholes.

India remains a crucial source of international students for Australia, with 122,391 Indian students enrolled during January-September 2023, according to the Indian high commission in Canberra. The fee hike, therefore, is expected to have a significant impact on Indian students planning to study in Australia.

Recent measures by the Australian government to address migration issues include shortening the duration of temporary graduate visas, reducing age eligibility, and ending “visa hopping” practices. Additionally, the government had previously relaxed work-hour restrictions for student visa holders to address workforce shortages, but these restrictions were reinstated in June 2023, limiting work to 48 hours a fortnight while studying.

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The increased visa fees will help fund several educational and migration initiatives, such as financial support for apprentices and their employers and the implementation of Australia’s migration strategy. Furthermore, the temporary skilled migration income threshold (TSMIT) has been raised from AU$70,000 (₹3,790,000) to AU$73,150 (₹3,960,000).

This significant fee increase reflects the growing value of education in Australia and the government’s commitment to maintaining the integrity of its international education sector. Indian students planning to study in Australia will need to factor in these changes, which are significantly expensive, as they prepare for their higher education journey.

(with inputs from Reuters) 

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