What does ‘respect’ mean for infants and toddlers in early childhood centres?
From inviting infants to engage and waiting for their approval prior to interacting with them to interpreting children’s intentions by peacefully observing them, Toni Christie explores how respect is the most significant aspect of care and education
Respect is the most significant aspect of care and education with infants and toddlers in centre-based care. Defined as ‘treating with consideration’, respect was the over-arching feature underpinning the values and actions of teachers in a recent research project undertaken in a New Zealand infant and toddler centre. The overall aim of the study was to explore these practices for the benefit of other practitioners wanting to emulate a similar environment.
This article is based on the findings from my master’s thesis completed in 2010. I undertook a qualitative case study that investigated the practices of primary care, freedom of children’s movement to enhance their physical capabilities, and respect for children’s confidence and competence.
The case study centre caters for twenty children under two years of age and is open from 7.30am until 6pm Monday to Friday. The ratio is 1:4 with a centre manager who works on the floor but outside of the ratio. The centre is divided into three distinct areas; the infant room, the toddler room and an outdoor area. There are eight infants with two teachers in the infant room and twelve toddlers with three teachers in the toddler room. My research was conducted in the infant room and the teaching staff observed and interviewed for the research were the two infant teachers and the centre manager.
Observation data was gathered by non-participant pen and paper observations and video recording. Documentation records such as ERO reports, prospectus information, children’s individual discovery projects, wall displays, newsletters and information for parents were useful in triangulating data generated by observations and teacher interviews as well as a parent focus group interview. A thematic coding of observational and interview data was used to interpret and analyse the data.
Teachers at the case study centre engaged in ways that would suggest they accept each person as an individual with rights and freedoms. Teachers invited children to engage with them, and no action would be initiated for or with a child without his or her agreement. This agreement was shown through the children’s cues and gestures, to which the teachers were all highly attuned. Teachers slowed their pace intentionally and offered children choices in their care and education. Close observation of the children by the teachers enhanced their ability to interpret individual children’s needs and wants. The teachers would then offer support for children rather than intervene unnecessarily
Ethics of care
The ethics of care discourse provided an important background to my study. The notions of empathy and respect at the heart of the ‘ethics of care’ discourse are prevalent in the feminist moral theory literature (Goldstein, 1998; Dahlberg & Moss, 2005; Noddings, 1984; Tronto, 1993). The general premise of the ethics of care debate is that “caring is not something you are, but rather something you engage in, something you do” (Goldstein, 1998, p. 247). The word ‘care’, as it pertains to teaching, is often linked to feelings, personality traits, or a person’s temperament. However, Goldstein argues, this simplistic view of care obscures the “complexity and intellectual challenge of work with young children” (p. 245).
Noddings (1984) is in agreement with Goldstein and states: “Caring involves stepping out of one’s own personal frame of reference and into the other’s” (p. 24). Noddings calls this motivational shift of putting aside your own choices, preferences, ideas, and really receiving another person as “motivational displacement” (p. 24). This shift “compels the one-caring to give primacy, even if momentarily, to the goals and needs of the cared-for” (Goldstein, 1998, p. 246). This motivational displacement coupled with peaceful observation (see later section) will lead the one caring to support the one cared for in a manner most suited to the cared for. For example, a teacher may believe that a child has no need or use for a security toy, but in reading the gestures and cues of the infant (peaceful observation) may offer the infant their security toy against their own beliefs (motivational displacement).
Teachers invite children to engage
Interactions with children at the case study centre would most often begin with some form of invitation to interact by the teacher. Usually this would take the form of a verbal invitation accompanied by outstretched open hands with palms facing up. After this initial verbal and physical invitation, the caregiver would wait for a response. The response time from the child varied. The one constant in this sequence of events was that nothing happened until the child agreed:
Interaction between Kea [teacher] and Charlotte [infant]
(All participants’ names are pseudonyms.)
“Would you like a nappy change?” she says the words and offers opened arms and hands.
When Charlotte doesn’t react Kea says “I’ll wait until you are ready.”
[Adding] “You let me know when you are ready” Charlotte thought for about 30 seconds and then bum-shuffled, waving her hands over to Kea who scooped her into her waiting open hands and arms and took her for a nappy change.
(Observation data transcribed from video)
In this exchange the child is offered the choice and therefore holds the power over when her nappy is changed. This was very typical of the interactions at the case study centre. A teacher would initiate with a verbal invitation, always accompanied by open hands held out as a gesture of invitation. Then the teacher would wait for the child’s assent which would usually be a physical sign such as tipping forwards into the open arms or putting their hands up to be carried or moving closer to be picked up.
An invitation and explanation is a simple matter of respect. This can be understood in another scenario: for example, imagine being asked, being heard, and holding the power yourself in matters affecting your physical well-being. For most adults this is accepted as a basic human right. Now imagine someone physically lifting or interfering with you in any way to which you have not consented. In the second instance, when you were not invited or consulted, the experience is one of powerlessness. You might feel more like an object rather than a human being with individual thoughts, opinions, freedoms and rights!
In order to give infants unhurried time, teachers themselves have to make a commitment to slow down and be emotionally ‘present’ with infants (Kovach & Da Ros-Voseles, 2008). The following is an example of how teachers were unhurried in their interactions with infants at the case study centre:
When Tui comes back to the nursery Kea has been cuddling Max and Tui heats his bottle. She gently removes his jersey. This is a slow process and she talks to him about how she is moving his body. Tui takes Max and the bottle through to the sleep room. Tui cuddles Max as she feeds him his bottle. Ben is not yet asleep and he calls out when Max makes some sounds prior to his bottle coming. Max stops to have a look at the moving stars and Tui waits patiently until he wants his bottle again. She tries again but Max moves his head indicating he has had enough… “OK shall we put you to bed then?” She puts Max into his bed and strokes his head. She hums along with the music that is playing and Max makes little snuffling sleepy noises while she hums. He plays with her hand which is not stroking his head. Ben lets out some sounds and Max makes a small complaint. Not enough for Tui to take him out of bed. Max yawns and Tui rubs his chest gently. Max experiments with sounds and Ben joins in a little bit. Now Tui is rubbing his chest gently with one hand and his head with the other. Max’ eyes close and Tui stays with him a while longer continuing to rub his chest. When she is sure he’s asleep she gently removes her hand from his chest and fluidly secures the side of his cot and removes herself from his cot. She sits listening to Ben for a while: I think she is deciding whether she should allow him to see her as till this point though he has heard her he hasn’t seen her. He holds his hands out to Tui to indicate that he needs her. She picks him up and suggests they go and change his nappy. (Observation data transcribed from video)
The observation above is evidence of the teacher’s commitment to slowing her pace and providing valuable, uninterrupted, quality time and attention to the infant. When she does this she demonstrates her ability to empathise with the infant and understand from his perspective what the experience of going to sleep at the centre must feel like.
One parent at the focus group interview described a workshop (run by the teachers at the case study centre) where she and her husband, along with other partners present, had to feed each other:
We were role playing and one was the child and the other the adult and we had to role play the scenario where they are rushing the child. Her partner was feeding her yoghurt and talking on his cell phone at the same time and wasn’t allowing her the time to swallow. She said by the end of it she was covered in yoghurt and really angry but the exercise taught her a great lesson about following the child’s lead for when they are ready and how long they might need to swallow. Also, she was annoyed about him talking on the cell phone instead of paying attention to her.
(Janine: parent focus group interview)
Another aspect of unhurried time is the conscious decision that teachers have made to move slowly and fluidly in the infant room. They move as though they do not want to disturb anything. On several occasions I observed teachers moving slowly and softly, with small, quiet, and fluid movements. When asked about this in the teacher interviews they would explain their intention is to reinforce the idea that this is the children’s space and teachers do not want to do anything that will disturb that slow, peaceful space and pace.
This practice of taking adequate time deepens teachers’ awareness and knowledge of each child, sensed by their behaviour, body language and expressions. In the case above, the cues suggested Max might be a bit tired. Talking to him about tiredness and suggesting a sleep allowed the child to be the decision maker in the process.
My research indicated that when teachers give their time they show value for the person with whom they are engaged. When we rush an interaction we run the risk of leaving the person with whom we are interacting feeling unsatisfied and undervalued by the experience. Each child will have his or her own rhythm and pace. Respectful practice involves stepping out of personal rhythm and pace and adjusting to that of the infant. For adults generally this is going to mean slowing down a great deal in order to observe and interpret needs, invite children to engage, wait for their response and then engage in the interaction at the child’s pace.
Choices are offered
On several occasions I observed teachers offering children choices and one of the most common was to offer children a choice in the colour of the bib they wanted to wear for a mealtime. This was something that happened prior to every meal time and was part of a sequenced routine for children. Wearing a bib indicated that they would have their meal next. I noticed that the action of choosing a bib aided children’s ability to wait for a turn.
At mealtimes there were always choices for food prepared by the cook so teachers could cater to children’s individual tastes. Also choices about when children were hungry and wanted to eat were decided by the child. Teachers would offer food and if it was not accepted they would put it away to offer later.
Teachers at the case study centre felt that offering children choices was an essential element of their philosophy and practices. Below are examples of the Centre manager’s opinion on the subject of choices:
It is important to offer children choices. You know especially infants – they don’t get a lot of choice about anything really. So offering them a choice in anything that involves them gives the power over to them. They can see and feel how powerful they are in decisions which directly affect their wellbeing (Huia: teacher interview).
It is important to talk to them about what is going to happen next and giving them the opportunity to respond and be a willing participant. By giving children choices (particularly infants who are often overlooked in this area), they will soon get the idea that their opinion is valued (Huia: teacher interview).
Offering choices and inviting children to engage are both important parts of the programme provided at the case study centre. In both of these aspects the teachers consider it essential that they wait for a response. Suskind (1985, cited in Petrie & Owen, 2005, p. 144) calls this time between teacher invitation and child response “. This is another important aspect of offering choices which links to the concept of unhurried time. When a choice is offered, teachers need to allow time for a response (and this may take longer than expected in ‘adult time’), and then react according to the wishes of the child. I agree with Brumbaugh (2008) who sums up why it is important to offer children choices succinctly: “When educators trust children to make choices concerning their daily events and activities, they not only create a sense of autonomy, but also an environment of respect” (p. 175).
My findings indicate that through subtle signs and gestures in the presence of sensitive, attuned observers, even the youngest child can express his or her opinion and therefore have his or her human rights upheld (United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child, 2003).
It is through observation that teachers learn what the child wants, needs, likes, dislikes and also what they are capable of and what their emerging capabilities are. This peaceful observation enables teachers to go further than just feeling empathy. They go beyond “what would I want if I were her?” to actually consider “what does she want?” An example was when Kea put away a child’s pacifier because she had thought she did not need it:
The child didn’t complain but looked anxious so Kea gave it back and said “Do you feel you need that?” Liv put it down beside her and continued to explore without it.
In the example above, Kea felt Liv had no need or use for the pacifier but by paying close attention to the emotions of the child who did not complain but simply looked anxious, was able to interpret the desires of the child. The ethics of care discourse (Goldstein, 1998; Noddings, 1984) would suggest that peaceful observation led Kea to give Liv the pacifier against her own better judgment (motivational displacement) because the ethics of care involve respecting another person enough to understand what they might actually want as opposed to what you think they might want.
This same ideology explains why I observed teachers over-riding the guidelines of free movement on occasion at the case study centre. Even though teachers believed strongly in the idea of natural motor progression and un-aided motor development, they would pick up a child who became upset lying on his back, or help him roll back onto his back if he was upset on his tummy, or prop a child to sit if this was a practice they were more used to from home. By paying close attention or engaging in attentive, receptive engrossment (Goldstein, 1998) the teacher displaces her own motivation and acts as the child wants, as opposed to the teacher’s own perception of what the child wants.
This ability to really see from the perspective of another requires close attention on the part of the teacher. I have labeled it peaceful observation as neither teacher nor child is making any demands of the other.
Teachers support rather than intervene
The teachers at the case study centre all felt very strongly that support rather than intervention was a mark of respect for the child. They felt that adults generally try to do too much for children and this can have a damaging effect on the child’s perception of themselves as confident and competent learners. The following were some of the comments from the teacher interviews:
Our infants are exposed to an environment that respects them for who they are, their wairua (spirit) is nurtured, honoured and celebrated. Our programme encourages our babies to feel secure and safe to make independent choices in all areas of their learning and development. I believe this teaches them a positive and healthy self-image and, ultimately and optimistically, a healthy world view (Tui: teacher interview).
I think respecting children’s confidence and competence provides them with the mana (self-esteem) that comes with working through feelings and emotions. When infants are allowed time and support to work through feelings like frustration they learn to self-regulate, collect themselves and focus. They also learn to trust and feel emotionally secure if they need that extra hand from someone else. Knowing when to lend that hand is really important. Children are capable of so much more than people often give them credit for (Tui: teacher interview).
[We believe in] giving children the freedom, and encouraging them to become confident explorers. Being there to support, but not interfere as they figure things out, for example how to use their own bodies to get to where they want to go in their own time (Huia: teacher interview).
Brownlee (2009) talks about “a baby’s sacred quest for competence” (p. 4) and discusses why trusting children and waiting and watching is far more beneficial to the child than rushing in to ‘save’ or ‘rescue’ them. When a child learns to master anything on his or her own there is a sense of power and competence that no amount of watching an adult do it for them could possibly hope to emulate.
A team approach is an important element
In the same way that it has been shown that teachers show respect for children they also demonstrate it amongst themselves. The teachers developed some sound strategies for ensuring they have a shared understanding of what it is to be respectful of each other. The team contract created by the current teaching team at the case study centre is a good example. This contract is a document the teachers developed together by brainstorming everything that each felt was important. Everything in the contract had to be agreed to by all the parties and this has given the teachers a shared understanding of respectful behaviour. Most importantly, because it was worked out together, each of the team has ownership of the ideas the contract contains.
Actions demonstrating respect include: developing nurturing relationships, predictability, empathy, considering the child as a capable and equal human being, being fully ‘present’ and undertaking peaceful observations to respond sensitively. Respect involves intentional caring or an ethic of care where the teacher is intentionally able to displace her own motivation in order to truly understand the needs and wishes of the child. When teachers invite children to engage, and wait for their agreement prior to engaging, infants are afforded control over their situation.
Teachers show respect for infants with their practice in early childhood centres by:
Recognising that infants need to develop a strong and reciprocal relationship with at least one other person in the environment and implementing a primary caregiver system to cater for that primary need.
Inviting infants to engage and waiting for their approval prior to interacting with them.
Interpreting children’s intentions by peacefully observing them and paying close attention to their body language, cues and gestures.
Recognising that infants may prefer an unhurried approach to their individual care routines, learning and development, for example, being flexible and responding according to the needs and rhythms of the infants as opposed to working by the clock.
Offering infants choices about what is to happen for them and waiting for a response to the choices that are offered.
Being available to the infant and supporting them in their learning, but resisting the urge to intervene unnecessarily in their problem-solving efforts and mastery of their own physical development.
Recognising the need for a strong philosophy and deep level of respect for children, families and the whole team at the centre.
The teachers at the case study centre have a vision about how their centre should feel and what experiences will be like for infants and toddlers who attend. The most important part of realising this vision is that every one of the teaching team shares the vision. Part of the philosophy with children is that teachers trust them to be confident and competent learners but the first level of trust necessary within the environment is amongst all of the adults who are participating.
Brownlee, P. (2009).Ego and the baby, or why your colleagues huff and puff when you trust infants.In Yeah baby! 2009: A collection of articles for teachers and parents of infants and toddlers.(pp. 4-5).Wellington, New Zealand: Childspace Early Childhood Institute.
Brumbaugh, E. (2008).DAP in ECE: Respect.Kappa Delta Pi Record. 44(4), 70- 175.
Dahlberg, G., & Moss, P. (2005).What ethics?In G. Dahlberg & P. Moss (Eds.), Ethics and politics in early childhood education (pp. 64-85).London, England:Routledge.
Goldstein, L. (1998).More than gentle smiles and warm hugs:Applying the ethic of care to early childhood education.Journal of Research in Childhood Education. 12 (2), 244-256.
Hammond, R. (2009).Respecting babies: A new look at Magda Gerber’s RIE approach. Washington, DC:Zero to Three .
Kovach, B., & Da Ros-Voseles, D. (2008) Being with babies:Understanding and responding to the infants in your care.Silver Spring, MD:Gryphon House.
Noddings, N. (1984). Caring.Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Petrie, S., & Owen, S. (2005). Authentic relationships in group care for infants and toddlers – Resources for infant educarers (RIE) principles into practice.Philadelphia, PA:Jessica Kingsley.
Tronto, J. (1993). Moral boundaries:A political argument for an ethic of care.New York, NY:Routledge.
United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child. (2003, October). Concluding observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child: New Zealand. (UN Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.216).Geneva, Italy: Author.
About the Author:
Toni Christie is the Director of Childspace Early Childhood Institute in Wellington, New Zealand. She holds a Master's degree in Education and her research interests include infants and toddlers, environment design, nature education and leadership. Toni enjoys her many roles as Director, author, editor, marriage celebrant, speaker, musician, wife and mother.
From Testing to Learning: Redesigning Assessments for Student Success
The re-designed assessment policy is the need of the hour due to the great number of factors or alternatives it presents for assessment.
A plethora of activities, ranging from standardized examinations to writing an article or working on a group project, could be used for educational assessment. This assessment may be period or probable on the completion of the syllabus, conducted mainly to assess the knowledge, skill, and disposition of students on the subject or content taught by the teacher. The article examines whether there is a need to re-design assessments or not. Further, it explores the ambit of models for implementation and benefits sort by re-designing assessments.
Need for Re-Designing Assessment
The education assessment system in India dates back to the British colonial era when standardized tests were introduced to evaluate students’ academic performance. This system was further enhanced after India gained independence in 1947, with the establishment of various boards and councils responsible for conducting examinations and issuing certificates.
Today, India has a complex education assessment system that includes board examinations at the secondary (class X) and senior secondary (class XII) levels, entrance examinations for higher education, such as engineering and medical colleges, and national-level tests like JEE, NEET, and UGC NET. Additionally, there are state-level exams for admission to state universities and professional courses.
In recent years, there have been several efforts to reform the education assessment system in India, particularly with the introduction of continuous and comprehensive evaluation at the school level. The focus has shifted from rote learning and memorization to assessing students’ conceptual understanding and analytical skills. However, the system still faces many challenges, including exam-centric teaching practices, high-stakes testing, and a lack of standardization and transparency.
Some educators and policymakers argue that the current assessment methods are outdated and fail to capture the breadth and depth of student learning. They also argue that the focus on high-stakes standardized tests leaves little room for creativity, critical thinking, and other essential skills. Thus, there is a growing demand for alternative assessment methods that can more accurately measure students’ knowledge and skills in various areas. These alternative methods may include project-based assessments, portfolios, oral presentations, and peer evaluations. On the other hand, some argue that traditional assessment methods are still essential and effective, especially in providing a standardized basis for measuring student achievement and identifying areas for improvement.
The crucial narrative underlies the fact that we as educators must equip our students with the necessary skill, knowledge, and abilities before their graduation in such a way that they become self-reliant and prepared for industry-based dynamics & requirements.
Benefits from Re-designing Assessment
Possible benefits that can be achieved by redesigning education assessment in India:
- Better Learning Outcomes: By redesigning education assessment, it is possible to incorporate newer pedagogies and techniques which are more effective in promoting deep and meaningful learning. This will lead to the better academic performance of the students.
- Reduced Exam Stress: Currently, the education system in India is highly exam-oriented, resulting in high levels of stress among students. Redesigning assessments will reduce the anxiety that arises due to long periods of study with a focus on rote learning.
- Improved Teacher Training: With the redesign of education assessment, teachers will need to implement newer teaching methodologies requiring continuous teacher training across all levels of the education system.
- Greater Focus on Holistic Development: Education assessments that assess various dimensions of a student’s development- cognitive, social, emotional, etc. – will help in developing a more holistic approach to education that promotes the overall growth and development of the student.
- More Efficient Evaluation: Newer assessment techniques such as adaptive testing or automated assessment will allow more efficient and accurate evaluation of student performance compared to traditional, pen-and-paper testing.
- Alignment with the Industry: Redesigned assessments can be aligned with industry expectations, leading to higher employability of students post-graduation.
- Improving Education Equity: By assessing each student’s individual potential and performance, educators can identify underperforming students and devise strategies for their improvement, thus reducing educational inequity in the country.
Overall, redesigning education assessment would benefit not only the students and teachers but also the educational system as a whole, leading to better outcomes and progress in the long term.
Educational institutions all around the world envisage and plan for the holistic development of students, the re-designing of assessments along with the focus on long-term projects contribute to comprehensive development in the following stakeholders:
Students: An assessment based on the aforementioned factors paves a way for attaining clarity towards choosing a profession as students can better understand the practical aspect of each field. It helps them to acquire the requisite skill set applicable to a specific profession whilst aligning & improving their current knowledge & abilities. Technological involvement is an essential imperative in the modern world which becomes a key factor of the assessment process as it equips students with innovative thought processes & problem-solving approaches. For instance, a student who wishes to pursue Management or Business Administration after school must also be assessed on Microsoft Excel or Presentation. When students get acquainted with pragmatic situations they are overset to embark on the possible solutions this ultimately adds to higher confidence & commandability in young individuals. Furthermore, various activities forming part of the assessment catalyze greater associations within the industry.
Teachers: With the redesigning of assessment policies within the framework of schools teachers will be required to continuously develop themselves to ensure deeper insights into subjects. There will arise a need to correlate with multiple activities prevalent in diverse fields with respect to the subject matter, which further leads to the development of mentoring relationships among students and teachers. Furthermore, the teaching pedagogy would have to encompass various innovative and creative approaches toward the learning process making the teachers technologically updated.
Institution: For any institution upon its foundation creating a culture becomes essential similarly a redesigned framework of assessment involves various aspects of collaboration. For instance, an institution can collaborate on a service project with another institution. Further various academic organizations form Memorandums of Association or Understanding with different industrial organizations, for instance, the culinary club at school can develop an MOU with Restaurant for providing internship experience to its interested students. The students enjoy the learning process and outcomes turn out to be quite outstanding compared to traditional assessment adding to the goodwill of the institution. Lastly, a healthy and thriving atmosphere of learning & assessing attracts national as well as global attention thus increasing the accreditations and recognition of an academic institution. For instance, a good number of schools in India excel in innovative inventions & development, these inventions could possibly be patented or recognized by various governmental departments.
Nation: When assessments are designed to deal with theoretical as well as non-theoretical aspects they contribute to the creation of life skills & soft skills in students ultimately leading to the holistic development of young individuals. Practical assessment requires practical solutions where students take steps towards self-sufficiency and self-employment. These students during their learning hours get acquainted with tasks related to adversity or risk management which indeed is a quality that all individuals in society must learn & master. These little steps practiced, taught, and assessed in schools build citizens with high cognitive & logical abilities. Ultimately schools are a pathway to the world, when schools collaborate and associate, a chain of collaborative efforts gets set up throughout the economy and society, and students act as the most important resource for the growth & development of any nation.
Take a view from the eagle’s eye and witness the outcomes of the traditional assessment system compared to that of the Re-Designed assessment system which is composed of a number of activities including up to a certain limit the pen and paper assessment approach as well. Uniquely the re-designed assessment policy is the need of the hour due to the great number of factors or alternatives it presents for assessment. Multiple factors are the key to recognizing student potential in different fields, in this way, the young potential is not discarded or set aside simply on the notion that a student has failed or lacks in one means of assessment. A popular quote as follows sums up the argument in favor of multiple assessments, being – “Everyone is a genius, but if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid.” Further, a re-designed structure for assessment benefits not only students but teachers, parents, academic and industry institutions, and the country as well.
Author – Sushma Bhadauria, Founder Principal, CLC International School, Sikar, Rajasthan
Outdoor Education for a Sustainable Future: Why We Need It Now More Than Ever
Outdoor education offers children opportunities to interact with their peers and develop social skills.
Outdoor education is the process of learning outside the traditional classroom setting. It provides a platform for children to learn in a more natural and hands-on environment. It is crucial for children in their early childhood years, as it offers a range of benefits that cannot be achieved indoors. Outdoor education can take place in parks, forests, gardens, and any other natural environment.
Outdoor Education can benefit students in various aspects. I have tried to summarize positive impacts on students.
Outdoor education offers children opportunities to interact with their peers and develop social skills. Children learn to cooperate, share, and communicate with each other. They also learn to negotiate, compromise, and solve problems. These skills are essential for children’s social and emotional development. Outdoor education also offers opportunities for children to interact with adults who are not their parents or teachers. This interaction helps to develop their social skills and build their confidence.
Outdoor education offers children opportunities to engage in hands-on learning experiences that promote their cognitive development. Children learn to observe, inquire, and explore the natural world. They also learn to think creatively and critically. Outdoor education provides opportunities for children to engage in open-ended play, which enhances their problem-solving skills. Children also learn to make connections between their experiences in nature and the concepts they learn in the classroom.
Outdoor education helps children to develop a sense of independence and self-reliance. They learn to take risks, make decisions, and solve problems independently. These experiences help to build their self-esteem and confidence. Outdoor education also provides a platform for children to connect with nature. Children learn to appreciate the natural world and develop a sense of wonder and curiosity. This connection with nature is beneficial to their emotional well-being.
Outdoor education offers children opportunities to engage in physical activities that promote their physical development. They can engage in running, jumping, climbing, and other activities that require physical exertion. These activities help to develop their muscles and increase their stamina. Physical activities also enhance children’s motor skills, balance, and coordination. Outdoor education also offers opportunities for children to play with natural materials, such as stones, sand, and water. These materials provide sensory stimulation, which enhances children’s cognitive development.
Outdoor education helps children to develop an appreciation for the natural world and an understanding of the interdependence between humans and the environment. Children learn about the importance of conservation and sustainability. They also learn to be responsible stewards of the environment. This awareness is crucial for the future of our planet.
Outdoor Teaching has its own Pros and Cons briefly described below.
Physical development: Outdoor education provides opportunities for children to engage in physical activities that promote their physical development. This helps to improve their muscle strength, coordination, and overall health.
Social development: Outdoor education provides opportunities for children to interact with their peers and develop social skills. They learn to cooperate, share, and communicate with each other, which helps to build their social skills and emotional intelligence.
Emotional development: Outdoor education helps children to develop a sense of independence, self-reliance, and resilience. They learn to take risks, make decisions, and solve problems independently, which builds their self-esteem and confidence.
Cognitive development: Outdoor education provides opportunities for children to engage in hands-on learning experiences that promote their cognitive development. They learn to observe, inquire, and explore the natural world, which enhances their problem-solving skills.
Environmental awareness: Outdoor education helps children to develop an appreciation for the natural world and an understanding of the interdependence between humans and the environment. This awareness is crucial for the future of our planet.
Safety concerns: Outdoor education may pose some safety concerns, especially when children engage in physical activities such as hiking or climbing. It is crucial for educators and parents to ensure that children are supervised and that the environment is safe for children.
Weather conditions: Outdoor education may be affected by adverse weather conditions such as rain, snow, or extreme heat. This may limit the time and frequency of outdoor activities, making it challenging for educators and parents to incorporate outdoor education into the curriculum.
Access to natural environments: Not all communities have easy access to natural environments such as parks or forests. This may limit the opportunities for children to engage in outdoor education.
Cost: Outdoor education may require additional resources such as transportation, equipment, and supplies, which may be expensive for schools and families.
Curriculum constraints: Incorporating outdoor education into the curriculum may be challenging, especially when there are limited time and resources. This may lead to a lack of consistency and continuity in the delivery of outdoor education.
Overall outdoor education is an essential component of early childhood education. It offers a range of benefits that cannot be achieved indoors. Outdoor education promotes physical, social, emotional, cognitive, and environmental development. It provides opportunities for children to engage in hands-on learning experiences and connect with nature. As such, it is crucial that educators and parents prioritize outdoor education for children in their early childhood years.
Author – Priyanka Singh, Principal, Semillero International PreSchool, Bangalore
Beyond the Classroom Walls: The Value of Outdoor Education
Outdoor education in the curriculum opens new vistas of exploration
“Children should learn through sensorial experiences and not through…the mere explanation of words”
Many educational theorists from time to time were interested in experiential education connecting children to nature, theory to practice, schooling to life, and school to home and community through practical learning in outdoor spaces.
Learning does not and cannot be confined to the four walls of a classroom. New age pedagogies are largely focused on experiential learning, relatability with the real world, and most of all meaning-making in the real-life scenario. ‘Outdoor Education’ therefore holds great relevance in stimulating and steering learning. Experiences, observations, and interactions with individuals, learning resources, natural surroundings, simulators, structures, and processes outside of a traditional classroom setting make an integral part of modern educational methodologies. Here are some of the reasons why outdoor education is important:
Physical activity and dynamism: Outdoor education encourages physical activity, which is essential for maintaining good physical, mental, and emotional health. Individuals who engage in outdoor activities are by and largely healthy, they display overall well-being.
Hands-on learning opportunities: When a student experiences a nature walk/ a field trip/ an industry tour/ a museum, an art gallery, or a laboratory, the hands-on experience enables them to explore, discover and learn about them through sensory inputs which are multi-dimensional. The learning in such a case is relatable, lasting, and contextual.
Multiple Intelligences at Play: In the outdoor learning model the student is not restricted to only auditory, and verbal-linguistic faculties. They would rather engage the subtler forms of intelligence which otherwise are not put to use. For instance, students will never get a better understanding of the vast space in the cosmos until they have watched the night sky live. Noting can match the experience of counting the stars forming a constellation in the sky, not even the audio-visual aids of modern times. A naturalist will learn by building a connection of concepts with the natural world outside the classroom and a Kinaesthetic Learner will learn by interacting with the subject of learning. A musical learner on the other hand will learn from the rhythm in nature and processes. It is interesting to note here that human beings are inherently attuned to learning through building relations, generating ideas, and creating solutions that are aimed at addressing real-world issues.
Builds problem-solving skills: Outdoor education helps students develop problem-solving skills as they learn to adapt to new environments and situations. Students are encouraged to think creatively and critically to address challenges that arise during outdoor activities. There is an ample number of teenagers and youth who are helping address the various challenges before Sustainable Development and the attainment of global goals. Adventure camps, Mountaineering, and Hiking bring out the best in the youth and create opportunities to develop physical, mental, and emotional endurance. Educators must integrate such experiences essentially into the annual academic calendar of the schools.
Fosters teamwork and collaboration: Outdoor education encourages teamwork and collaboration as students work together to accomplish tasks and overcome challenges. This helps build communication skills and promotes a sense of community and brings to the fore the leadership attributes of the children. Outdoor education enables the learners to experience a natural setup to interact, take initiative, step up to lead, offer help, or build dependability. Outdoor Education facilitates the development of social skills, effective communication, and much-desired collaboration skills for sustainable living in the context of SDG 2030.
Develops environmental awareness and commitment towards global goals: Outdoor education helps students develop a sense of appreciation and responsibility for the natural world. The natural setting offers opportunities to understand the vastness as well as the non-renewability of natural resources. By exploring and learning about the environment, students develop a deeper understanding of the impact of humans impact on the planet and the need to take action. Their commitment to helping sustainable development and attaining SDG 2030 gets renewed as a result.
Improves mental health: Outdoor education has been shown to improve mental health by reducing stress and anxiety and improving the release of the happy hormone Dopamine. Spending time in nature has a calming effect on the mind and can help reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety which are become the new normal in today’s world torn apart by the ill effects of technological disruptions.
Interdisciplinary Approach: Outdoor education build an outlook to view learning as an interdisciplinary pursuit rather than merely a process of gathering knowledge of the different subject matter in seclusion for the purpose of writing examinations and thereafter pursuing a profession with the aim of earning money to meet the needs of self and family.
Inspiration towards Holistic Living: Outdoor learning helps institutions and individuals to envisage the core purpose of human life ‘ Holistic Living’ rather than investing their life into the pursuit of material-oriented limited life goals
Vasudhaiv-Kutumbkum: Outdoor learning helps build connections with other beings, races, and regions. One gets to interact with and reflect upon the interdependency of all living and no living beings on each other. This provides the young generation an opportunity to identify their roles and responsibilities rather than counting life through their rights and gains.
In conclusion, I would like to state that encompassing outdoor education in the curriculum opens new vistas of exploration. It has the potential to provide numerous benefits for students and adults alike as It encourages physical activity, provides hands-on learning opportunities, builds problem-solving skills, fosters teamwork and collaboration, develops environmental awareness, and improves mental health in addition to building strong connections with surroundings. Outdoor learning provides the opportunity for learning about a diverse range of issues ranging from climate change to food security, diversity, discrimination, and the like.
In the context of all the benefits that outdoor education has to offer to supplement school education and complement the core objectives of the school curriculum, it is imperative for schools to provide due weightage to gardening, field trips, excursions, adventure camps, sporting activities, and community engagement.
Author – Soma Singh, Head of School, DPSG International, Ghaziabad
Teaching for Thought: Nurturing Critical Thinking in the Classroom
Success in school, in a career, and in one’s own personal development all depends on one’s ability to think critically.
Analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing information to create judgments and make decisions is critical thinking. The ability to think critically equips pupils to deal with ambiguity, find solutions to difficulties, and make sound judgments.
Critical thinking is more crucial than ever in today’s information-rich culture. Students need to develop skills in analysis, evaluation, and synthesis in addition to memorization if they are to be able to use knowledge effectively in the real world. Success in school, in a career, and in one’s own personal development all depend critically on one’s ability to think critically. Even more crucial now, as AI and automation advance, is the ability to think critically. It’s what separates us from robots.
While critical thinking has long been recognized as an essential skill for students, the rapidly evolving educational landscape requires a fresh approach to cultivating this skill in the age of technology and AI. Doing that is not a natural process but requires training, practice, and exposure to diverse perspectives.
Here at GGIS, we try to create an environment that promotes critical thinking by incorporating various strategies and activities that challenge students to think critically. Let’s understand the same through a few strategies:
PRACTICE 1- Encouraging Problem-solving
The first stage in developing critical thinking is to identify the problem, generate potential remedies, and evaluate its efficacy. The activities may include group work, brainstorming, and decision-making exercises and may be either planned or unstructured.
Instructors can facilitate learners’ exploration and experimentation with various materials and concepts through hands-on learning opportunities. Students can be separated into groups, and each group can be assigned a unique problem to tackle. When students confront issues or obstacles, instructors can urge them to persist. Students can be prompted to generate as many unique solutions as feasible for a given topic.
Using real-world problems can add a thrill to the learning process. For example- find a way to make a broken toy work again, etc. If learners are too young, then teachers can model problem-solving skills for kindergarteners by thinking out loud as they solve problems. For instance, teachers can explain the actions they are taking to solve a specific problem or demonstrate how to break a problem down into its component elements.
Giving learners of all ages the opportunity to address problems is vital to the development of critical thinking.
PRACTICE 2- Encourage Questioning and Inquiry
One of the most effective ways to foster critical thinking is to encourage students to ask questions. This can involve asking open-ended questions that require students to think deeply and provide evidence to support their answers. For example- how many different ways can this chair be used? Or what other shapes could you make with this block?
To encourage students to ask questions and try out new concepts without worrying about being judged, teachers can provide a nurturing and accepting classroom setting. During class discussions, group projects, or individual assignments, you might have your students come up with and talk about their own questions. This helps in creating a classroom culture of curiosity and inquiry.
Instructors can pique their students’ interest by giving them chances to learn about and experiment with new topics. Teachers can lead children on a nature walk and encourage them to make observations and ask questions. Real-world challenges are a great way for educators to foster students’ analytical and problem-solving abilities. The finest approaches to inspire curiosity and questioning are through THINKING ROUTINES and EXPLORATION corners.
Educators may foster the next generation’s development of imaginative and analytical abilities by offering such ample space for students to learn about the world and its many mysteries.
PRACTICE 3- Use Diverse Perspectives
Historical, cultural, and social perspectives and points of view can be incorporated into teachings by teachers. Exposing children to a variety of ideas can aid in the development of their critical thinking skills by encouraging them to consider alternative points of view.
When children read books with diverse characters and perspectives, they are exposed to different cultures, beliefs, and experiences. This can help them develop empathy and understanding for others, as well as challenge their own assumptions and biases. They will understand and appreciate diversity. Asking a child to consider why someone might have a different opinion than their own can help them learn to analyze and evaluate different viewpoints.
Viewing the news on multiple channels, reading articles from multiple sources, and listening to podcasts can help children grasp that there are multiple perspectives and that it is important to evaluate the credibility of different sources.
PRACTICE 4- Promote Collaboration
Students can communicate ideas, viewpoints, and feedback through collaboration. Educators can promote this by encouraging students to work in groups, participate in conversations, and offer constructive comments to their classmates.
Group projects urge youngsters to complete a task or address an issue through collaboration. Children are required to exchange ideas, argue contrasting viewpoints, and come up with a solution that benefits all parties.
Children get the opportunity to voice their thoughts, ask questions, and consider the opinions of others during classroom conversations. This form of collaboration fosters critical thinking because children must attentively listen to one another, examine various points of view, and assess the evidence offered.
Peer feedback is an integral component of teamwork and fosters critical thinking, as children must analyze the comments they receive, evaluate their own work, and make adjustments depending on the input of others.
PRACTICE 5- Teach Analytical Skills
Teachers must give opportunities for pupils to analyze, evaluate, and interpret information from a range of sources in order to teach analytical skills. Real-world examples are the most helpful in this regard. Asking pupils to find cause-and-effect links is a straightforward technique to improve their analytical skills. For young children, the instructor can ask to assess the story elements of a book, including the characters, storyline, and place. For instance, teachers can ask students to identify the story’s primary character, define their personality attributes, and explain how that character solves a problem.
All pre-math skills, such as comparing and contrasting, sorting, categorizing, and recognizing patterns, etc., assist pupils to polish their analytical abilities, which in turn can aid in the development of critical thinking.
PRACTICE 6- Teach Metacognitive Skills
Metacognitive skills help students to reflect on their own thought processes. This involves teaching children how to evaluate their own learning and reflect on their own mental processes. Using peer feedback or self-assessment tools, for instance, students might be encouraged to reflect on their own learning and highlight areas where they need to improve.
Young learners can also be taught these skills by asking them “What did you learn today?” or “What was your favorite part of the lesson?” or “What are you curious about?” This can assist young learners to acquire a sense of ownership over their educational experience and a greater awareness of their own learning. The instructor may request that students depict their reflections in their reflection journals. Instructors might utilize visual aids such as posters, photographs, and graphic organizers to assist students in organizing their ideas and thoughts and encourage the students to provide and accept peer evaluation.
PRACTICE 7- Encourage Creativity and Imagination
Critical thinking goes beyond mere analysis and assessment. It is also about invention and creativity. Instructors may foster creativity and innovation by providing students with the opportunity to think creatively and generate novel ideas.
For instance, instructors may assign students to paint, draw, or sculpt utilizing various materials and techniques. Pupils can be instructed to collect natural objects, such as leaves, sticks, and stones, and incorporate them into their own artwork. Learners can be given building blocks and other materials and instructed to design and construct their own structures.
Instructors can present students with a provocation, such as “Once upon a time, there was a magical forest,” and encourage them to write a story based on the provocation. With music and movement activities, creativity and self-expression can be fostered. For instance, instructors may invite pupils to create their own dancing techniques or songs.
Overall, Critical thinking forms the basis for becoming a founder of a startup, as it aids in the identification of opportunities, evaluation of risks, and formation of well-informed decisions.
Author – Madhu Bhatia, Gems Genesis International School, Gujarat
From GPA to Gains: A New Approach to Learning and Achievement
It is the need of the hour to make a paradigm shift from grades to gains.
Gains vs Grades – what a diabolically opposite position the title has taken when they should be complimentary to each other.
Grades have absolutely no relevance in life but have assumed a pseudo-magnanimity when you are a student. I have an interesting observation to share. Success isn’t defined by the grades you achieve in school. Grades do open doors, it is an entry but that’s where it ends, at the threshold! After that what matters are study skills, work ethics, and commitment to being the best version of yourself. And honestly, my backbenchers always outperformed my stars in a class far too many times, in life!
It was an important lesson that I learned from my parents actually, my mother. Always concentrate on the efforts put in not the result. Results do matter but gain more than grades have a direct connection to it. A wonderful session by the motivational speaker Simon Sinek in some way indirectly perpetuates this fact. He states based on research that the human brain does not understand negative transmissions. A skier if told ‘do not look at the trees’ would end up looking at them and lose focus of the path that he needs to tread at neck break speed. But instead, if the skier was told to look at only the path, he naturally only focuses on single-mindedly getting through the slopes by concentrating on how he needs to get to the end goal. Imagine if every educator and every parent maintained a stance that helped the student focus on gains than grades. We would all be looking at a higher purpose or goal than just an A+ or the ridiculous expectation of a 100% score.
Hopefully, now that we are at the brink of the AI age maybe and it’s euphoria to believe so, we will not need a gradation system. Let’s imagine like in a Sci-fi movie AI can gauge the extent of knowledge and understanding a student possesses. It may seem a bit robotic but aren’t even the present exercises equally robotic in a manual way today? We standardize everything, expect the same answers, study the same material, and aspire to the same goals. In the industrial age, this was looked upon to be an equalizer, but that age is history today so why have we not adopted a better system that matches our requirements?
An interesting survey that was conducted during the pandemic stating that 60% of the working population wanted to change their profession or engage in a passionate and creditable form of employment. What does that say about the effects of the present reporting system or our education system? How relevant is it when it can’t help you find your calling, help you create a place of your own in society without feeling threatened or challenged, or the need to be a conformist?
There is the famous “Bell Curve” used as a parameter for understanding the makeup of the classroom. If I use that as a yard stick for satisfaction with who you are in life based on the data above, then 15% of the population is very happy and 15% is miserably unhappy but 60% will always try to get there: to be happy or save yourself from being miserable. Then does that mean it’s gain, relatively yes, literally no?
Gain is defined as a verb that means to obtain or secure something desirable; reach or arrive at a destination. As a noun is defined: an increase in wealth or resources; or the increase of power or voltage in an amplifier. By no means do grades relate in any way to the description above. It is a need of the hour to make a paradigm shift from grades to gains.
Let’s start mapping students to understanding than objectives. Let’s match students to aptitude than pay packets. Let’s start equating success to being content than a bank balance. It may seem herculean but not impossible. Let’s start the journey from grades to gains!
Author – Akshada Kamat, Head of School, Vedanya International School
Should We ChatGPT?
As a language model, parents should be aware that ChatGPT is trained on a wide range of texts from the internet, including texts that may not be suitable for children.
ChatGPT has taken the world especially the education world by storm. It has left colleges and universities scrambling to stop students from submitting AI generated essays, while companies are racing to integrate the technology to their existing applications and tools. As a language model, parents should be aware that ChatGPT is trained on a wide range of texts from the internet, including texts that may not be suitable for children. Also, the power of thinking, collating, imagining and dreaming of new realities and new avenues of considerations may be adversely affected by this use. So, I place myself in the chair of a modern-day parent rushing from one chore to another, trying to maximize the best for their children and list out the following tangibles.
- Apply for Jobs: Many of you are confident about your expertise and suitability for a particular role but struggle to communicate that in a crisp manner while you write your cover letter. You can tell ChatGPT the job that you are applying for, paste your work experience and receive a draft cover letter in about 10 seconds. But do remember it will not be very ‘warm’ like you wanted, so definitely read through and make it a tad personal with specifics included.
- Outsourcing Thinking: It is a great tool to brainstorm ideas. How to make the birthday party for your child ecofriendly? Ask the question and you will be provided with ideas that could help you generate better ideas. You could even ask for various holiday itineraries, by placing your choices from a beach holiday to an animal safari. ChatGPT would provide travel times, sights to see, amenities available etc. Imagine if you just said, ‘I am taking a family of 4 to Sikkim and our budget is xxx’, and it spits out a reasonable plan in 10 seconds, how convenient that would be. Also, it would probably make Google obsolete and you no longer need to surf through multiple websites and blogs to find something that suits you.
- Online Safety: As parents your guidance regarding online safety is foremost. Make your child aware of what it means to be cautious about the information they share with others and to be aware of online predators and cyberbullying. Limiting screentime and monitoring screentime activity is very essential.
- Parent Presence: With any technology especially something as new and as powerful as ChatGPT, you should be the one introducing your child to it and setting out the limitations of the model. Discussions should take place in your presence so that you can monitor the conversation and highlight the risks. Remember this is not policing but creating a safety net for the young so that they are not misguided and abused.
- Limitations of the Model: Parents should definitely highlight how this is only a machine learning model sans emotions, ethical considerations, common sense and critical thinking. ChatGPT only responds to questions based on the information it has been trained on and may not always be accurate or appropriate. Children should be taught to question the sources of information that has been generated and also evaluate the credibility of the same. Verification of response is mandatory for all, especially children who in many cases are under the misconception that whatever technology provides is infallible.
- Positives: Parents should not fight the new technology as our journey will be further fraught with such innovations that children will be forever exposed to. This is their new world; their new realities and we cannot like an ostrich bury our heads into a quagmire of our truths alone. So parents need to encourage children to use it in a positive and productive way. Sit beside them and work along with them to highlight how possibilities provided by this tool can further titillate their imagination to produce more effective and meaningful responses. Personalizing of information is the key to handling this tool successfully and productively. The personal touch and one’s unique imagination cannot be sacrificed at the altar of a mechanized tool.
So, parents, another milestone to set and another 21st century innovation to master. But together we can. We have to ensure that our children have a beneficial and a safe experience with ChatGPT. Being open-minded and gaining knowledge about the novelty behind this technology is what parents should aim for. There is a plethora of positives that can be unearth but only if we collaborate on this journey and not play an adversary to what AI has to offer. And who knows what more is to come. The cards are on your side of the table, parents. Do not let this opportunity go by.
Author – Sudeshna Sengupta, Director, Academics, Vedanya International School
What is Hybrid/Blended Learning?
We are lifelong learners and need to keep pace with the fast-paced technology so that our students are ready to take the next leap. Our classrooms have to echo that thought and vision at all times through new pedagogies and teaching-learning strategies.
The COVID wave – consider it a bane or boon – but it somersaulted us to an array of digital world experiences. It propelled us to rethink and reorganize our mindsets, our practices, and our expectations. Overnight, we moved from an offline teaching mode to online, and credit to the teaching community for doing it so seamlessly. Now, we are back to offline teaching but do we continue with our old practices? An obvious no so we need to infuse our online experiences within the offline to ensure that quality education reaches one and all.
One key pedagogy to achieve the goal is blended learning, an approach that combines face-to-face learning with online learning incorporating certain elements that support students to have control over the pace, time, and place. The material resource investment is minimal but human resource investment is high till the ethos is assimilated within all.
So let’s understand the varied types of blended learning and its implementation in the school teaching-learning process.
1. Station Rotation
In Station Rotation, students will rotate on a fixed schedule as per the teacher’s discretion. The teacher begins her class of 40 students with instruction on narrative writing from 9:00 am to 9:15 am. She then splits the class into three groups where one group continues to learn with her. The second group works on a collaborative assignment on narrative writing and the third use their laptops or computers placed in the class and researches blended learning and after 15 minutes the group switches so that every group has varied experiences. A block class of English can support the various transactions and supports students to build research, collaborative and knowledge skills.
In the same format, if computers or laptops are not available in class then students use the computer laboratory in school and this rotation would then be called as Lab Rotation.
In this methodology, all students with varied learning needs are supported. The only challenge is the Technology and time management skills.
2. Remote & enriched virtual learning
It is a course or subject in which students have required face-to-face learning sessions with their teacher of record and then are free to complete their remaining coursework remote from the face-to-face teacher. In class, the teacher gives a project to students on ‘Analysing any work of Shakespeare’s or Rabindranath Tagore’s Kabuliwalla’ w.r.t. the criterion of plot, characters, theme, language, thought and values.
She briefs students on works of Shakespeare and the elements of a play within the school timetable and they complete all the work at home.
3. Flex blended learning
During certain weekends if the teacher wishes to support the students further in class especially if the concept has been challenging or students have underperformed in an evaluation, the teacher records her remedial teaching and uploads in-class computers. She designs a task around remedial teaching. She expects students to report to school wherein students enter the class on their own time, access the teaching, complete the task and leave. If they have any further doubts, they could approach the teacher in the school or their peers. A useful TIP would be for the teacher to Collaborate with their colleagues in club activities.
4. Flipped learning
As per TeachThought, a flipped classroom is a type of blended learning where students are introduced to content at home and practice working through it at school. This is the reverse of the more common practice of introducing new content at school, then assigning homework and projects to be completed by the students independently at home.
This methodology is most useful when you want students to have some knowledge of the content before analyzing it further. So if a teacher wishes to conduct a ‘Book review’. She shares the e-book, 'Totto-chan' with the students. She asks them to read and shares certain discussion points. In school, students discuss the book and write personal book reviews. The teacher has used her class time constructively and has been to achieve greater learning outcomes.
5. Individual rotation blended learning
As per https://www.blendedlearning.org/models/, the Individual Rotation model allows students to rotate through stations, but on individual schedules set by a teacher or software algorithm. Unlike other rotation models, students do not necessarily rotate to every station; they rotate only to the activities scheduled on their playlists.
The teacher allows students to rotate through different kinds of classrooms called stations. A specific ILP [Individual learning plan] is created for each student. For example: Parth and Mona's examples work on clauses, Mona is struggling with Clauses so she attends classes and solves assignments whereas Parth will attend classes, watch a few videos, and also complete a research project on clauses. Thus the teacher knows her students' skills in greater depth and supports them individually to achieve her target learning outcomes.
6. Inside-out and outside-in blended learning
In Inside-out, teaching and learning begin inside the classroom and move to an outside environment and in an outside-in classroom, it begins in an outside environment and moves inside the classroom. In a class environment, the Teacher discusses with students about ‘Sound of Music’ in class and ends the lesson by taking them to the theatre to watch the play. In Outside-In, Students watch the play in a digital environment and end the lesson in a physical environment by conducting role-plays.
The list of models is many but one has to review their resources and plan accordingly.
One can mention that they may face challenges in terms of technology, lack of training on digital platforms, lack of resources to create self-paced learning environments, or time management with vast syllabuses to complete.
Certain tips that can come useful are:
1. Teachers can begin with easily available digital content like Khan Academy, Pinterest, discovery Education, PBS Learning Media, and much more.
2. Review the available resources and plan a timetable. Most importantly, a team achieves more so collaborate with your colleagues in club activities.
3. Take small simple steps – “The journey of a thousand miles begins with one step.” Lao Tzu. Choose the model that you are comfortable executing and then move forward.
As teachers, we are ever-evolving and we are that one profession that creates more professions so our responsibility and accountability stretch beyond the classroom. We are lifelong learners and need to keep pace with the fast-paced technology so that our students are ready to take the next leap. Our classrooms have to echo that thought and vision at all times through new pedagogies and teaching-learning strategies.
Christensen Institute, Blended Learning definitions, https://www.christenseninstitute.org/blended-learning-definitions-and-models/
About the author:
Kavita Sanghvi holds a Masters in Physics, Masters in Education, Masters in Philosophy of Education, and CAEL [Certificate in Advanced Course in Educational Leadership] Diploma from Harvard University. She heads SVKM's CNM School, in Mumbai. She is a Teach SDG’s Ambassador, Climate Action Ambassador, and Scientix Ambassador for India. She is a British Council Trainer and Ambassador.
Emerging Educational Trends: Experiential Learning
The pastures of Education need to be evergreen, sprinkled with the blooms and blossoms of the best ways to reach out to the tender, impressionable minds
Vagrant vegetation punctuated with Gurukuls, learning inspired by the stalwarts of prudence and erudition; wit that has belied all darkness and dispelled doubts and indecision; times, undoubtedly, have changed and so are the needs but, what has persisted is to cater to the best to the posterity.
In more modern times when Gurukuls are remote possibilities to go back to, with plush and well-equipped seats of scholastic excellence coming up, it is essential to distill and not dilute. The essence of such ancient seats of learning should have hands-on activities as its nucleus.
Tagore's Shantiniketan is a modern-day Gurukul and here if not in form but in spirit Gurudev as a mentor had endeavored to sculpt the best by encouraging the idea of a project which is an amalgamation of collective ideas with each one contributing in one's own way uniquely, while promoting camaraderie.
The scholars were asked to offer a cue, a thought nurtured by life experience which later nourished them to one of their kind. Rabindranath tempered them into thinking individuals who might not be academically prodigy but knew the art of contributing socially while being self-reliant.
He was strictly against rote learning. What better examples of Experiential Learning could it be that this policy venerated by Tagore has created Nobel Laureate Prof. Amartya Sen, Oscar Recipient and the doyen of Indian Cinema Mr. Satyajit Ray and the composer of the national anthem of Sri Lanka Shri Ananda Samarakoon to name a few. Albert Einstein too believed in creating individuals who can think, judge, and act independently while remaining socially relevant and hence emphasized Experiential learning.
NEP, 2020 encapsulates the spirited thoughts of all acclaimed philosophers, educationists, and policymakers who have insisted repeatedly that every bud is unique with its own appeal. Hence it is no comparison but in rhythm with the true Indian spirit where the unity nestles all diversities like a rainbow that learning should survive.
While the revamped educational policy has already started pealing the bells of high expectations, there are a plethora of nuances to be experimented on, with one being Flip Teaching. In this role reversal, students explore their knack for teaching which is a true augmentation of learning a topic before delivering in the presence of peers. Being an educator ups the performance thirst and bolsters confidence to unfold oneself in his or her own way while expressing pre-taught perceptional concepts with a new dimension. Nothing excites a student more than being engaged on a platform with the liberty to share and facilitate learning what he had once lapped up with his or her present audience.
Project-based learning would tap the innate or intrinsic beauties of a child, sharpen his skill befitting the 21st century, impart the real joy of learning together and bring him out of the predictable lines of contemplation. The outside world while entering the stereotypical classrooms where only scores matter, would propel a pupil to think out of the box, as the kid would understand the worth of interdisciplinary studies, being able to draw inferences from real life and the innovation and creative buzz would be robustly ringing in the corridors of a new young India.
It may sound clichéd but, is not it a stark truth that we as grown-ups remember when we do it? So it goes for a child too. From toddlers to adolescents, Flip teaching is an ideal way to learn by doing as it formulates a special equation and bonding between the pupils as when a child teaches a topic, he or she explains it in their own way and in their own vocabulary.
They communicate the topics not along the stapled path. There is not an iota of doubt that a child-educator can defenestrate the doubts and inhibitions which otherwise are challenging to meet with many a time for even a seasoned teacher. The comfort level can well do away with the hesitance to ask in fear of embarrassment or being adjudged. Just like the phone a friend in a popular Game Show here a child connects not only with the topic but is also able to grip and grasp the concept that he or she believes has been lucidly explained and hence, well understood by him or her.
The ease of sharing areas of doubt with someone of the same age inspires better teaching-learning. It peps up the eagerness to prepare the topic to be deliberated just as a public speaker or an orator would and in due process multiply the degree of understanding as it is when things would be clearly understood that they would be suitably deliberated. Flip Teaching is the heart-to-heart talk of a child to classmates. The role of being on and off the platform if not for all concepts at least for the arguably intricate ones would be greatly rewarding.
Feeling, and envisioning are much evolved as techniques for embracing ideas. When exposed to a persistent mode of theory learning a student may fumble and falter even the promptest ones as it is when a model is there as a real-life existence that a child absorbs effectively. The NEP would be a major learning indicator in this regard as from now onwards a child can from a wide range of new-age subjects pick and pursue. It is a blatant bitter truth that many professionals would become jobless as their job profiles would become obsolete since they had trained themselves in traditional subjects which had trained them as per the contemporary need and not for the requirement of times ahead. The Vocational Subjects, practical, hands-on experience-based subjects being part of the NEP bouquet is a bold step towards Experiential Learning as the student would be future-ready hence in tandem with futuristic essentialities. A pupil would not only accentuate his employability but slash the apprehension of abruptly becoming redundant, impertinent, and even a Cypher.
The greatest merit of Experiential Learning is that it is a big boost to the concept based and not crams learning. Einstein in his famous speech on the completion of 300 years of Higher Education in America had opined on how Education is that which remains even after we have left School. Einstein's theory of Education had no place for facts and figures but for a reason, logic, and gripping the essence through real-life performance. A specialized person trained in theoretical aspects sans practical exposure can neither serve the society of which he is an integral part nor himself. It is high time that as Second Home or home away from home where the kids are spending a lion's share of their daily time, need to go all out for the successful implementation of the same in spirit and letter. A child learning from ‘work your way’ is unquestionably far more equipped than those who indulged in learning by rote sidelining the efforts to earn experience of doing in real circumstances.
With growing tension piling into the social fabric it becomes all the more vital that students should share to sharpen their knowledge and get inspired by the idea that it is together they can grow better. The universal job market is emphasizing practical knowledge more than theoretical and so it should be the elementary obligation of Schools to insist on activity-based learning. As institutions of scholastic splendor, it should be imperative to ensure that students while learning even languages should have exposure to the practical application. Mere preparation to score marks would not facilitate in the long run so to stay longer in the run for excellence the millennial need to be imparted knowledge that can yield results in personal and social arenas. Experiential Education would not only redefine the existing orthodox approach to education where the crux is a marks enriched report card but now it would be the practical way forward to a star-studded larger report card of life.
Education needs and has to evolve and revamp in perfect tandem with changing times. The learning gap, loss of teaching days in many parts of the land, and unstable virtual community connectivity have been responsible for an irreparable loss for a large section of the student community during the pandemic. Hence, it becomes all the more important to innovate, and design activities that would engrain the notions of the different subjects so that the road ahead becomes less bumpy if not an absolute smooth sail.
In the post-pandemic scenario, it has become a compulsive necessity to resort to ways and means where the foundation can be curated to a robust offing.
Flip Teaching is a novel technique that is gradually picking up with the academicians as the output has turned out to be rewarding and synergic. The invisible girdle that encircles a child during the set Classroom Teaching can be smoothly done away with Flip Teaching. With a pinch of salt, the concerned educator too gets to realize what more needs to be done with his or her imparting of lessons. So it is also a lesson to be grasped by the teacher while the tables are turned and the student steps into the shoes of the teacher. Can as a stakeholder of the World of Academics one afford to overlook the fact that teachers' expressions used are at times unpalatable for the kid which when explained by a co scholar would be simple but certainly undiluted.
It is difficult to be simple and it happens with adults that they fail to comprehend the perception and exposure of a child and Flip Teaching in such cases can be a major relief.
Experiential Learning has been in vogue for a long in the West and in a few pockets of the East but now it is high time to pull up socks and take the big plunge for it is now or never.
The pastures of Education need to be evergreen, sprinkled with the blooms and blossoms of the best ways to reach out to the tender, impressionable minds and it is the sanctimonious obligation of every Educator to live up to the expectations and dynamic demands of fleeting time.
About the author:
Dr. Sunita Vashistha is the Principal of Maheshwari Girls Public School, Jaipur. She's a visionary school leader having 27 years of experience in Teaching and Education Administration. She has been twice Felicitated by the Ministry of HRD (now Education) for outstanding CBSE Results.
Teaching Online: How Some Online Classes Can Be More Effective Than Offline Classes
I hope to have shown how online classes are not always just a burden imposed when schools have to close, but can actually be pedagogically advantageous, enhancing the teaching and learning process in certain ways.
During the Covid-19 Pandemic, teachers everywhere quickly adapted to online forms of teaching and learning. This transition took place with great willingness, effort, and skill on the part of teachers – but rarely with genuine enthusiasm, for understandable reasons. Online teaching was viewed mostly as a necessary obligation precipitated by the unprecedented circumstances; a burden to tolerate only for the duration of the crisis before returning to face-to-face lessons at the earliest opportunity.
Negative feelings towards online learning are perfectly valid. Teaching online classes requires working with different pedagogical approaches to what teachers are accustomed to in a physical classroom. Long hours behind a screen can cause fatigue, and it is difficult to maintain students’ attention when they are not physically in their teacher’s presence. Students also have variable connectivity and device access, and while learning online they miss out on the essential socio-emotional development that comes from being in a real-life environment with their peers and teachers.
However, it must also be recognised that certain elements of online teaching can actually be advantageous compared to offline teaching. In this article, I wish to elaborate upon some of the ways in which online classes can be viewed as pedagogically superior to offline classes. Recently, there has been a lot of talk of ‘hybrid learning’ being the future of education. By understanding the ways in which online classes can enhance the process of teaching and learning, it becomes clearer how hybrid learning can be a beneficial direction of travel for the education sector.
Formative assessment is an important part of quality teaching and learning. It enables teachers to quickly check the extent to which a class has understood a lesson, resolve misunderstandings quickly, and provide targeted feedback. For students, it keeps them alert and attentive in a low-stakes manner, improving their motivation and helping them with clearer learning goals and targets. In a physical classroom, teachers can perform quick checks for understanding in various ways: requesting a show of hands, having students write down an answer to a question in large writing and hold it up for the teacher’s view, or even more innovative methods such as the use of clicker devices through which students can respond to multiple-choice questions.
All of these methods have their limitations: the visual checks are rarely comprehensive or completely accurate, gathering formative assessment data is often a time-consuming manual process, and the classroom technology for formative assessment is often cumbersome and impractical to use, as well as expensive. In an online class, however, formative assessment can be both easier to conduct and more effective. Teachers have tools at their disposal through which they can have students complete a short quiz or type responses to a question. This generally takes up less class time, makes it easier to ensure participation by all students in a class, and yields more accurate data that is instantly presented to the teacher, which they can use to give feedback in real-time. For these reasons, formative assessment can be a more successful activity in online lessons as compared to physical lessons.
Another powerful feature of online teaching is the ability to seamlessly integrate learning content. In an offline class, too, it is of course possible to use content through a projector or interactive board. However, in an online class, there can be two layers to the content: the teacher and the students may view different panels simultaneously. It, therefore, becomes possible for a teacher to follow a lesson plan or script while delivering a lesson, in a manner that is hidden from the students – for example, a sidebar on the screen displaying text prompts to the teacher.
This may not be an advantage in higher-end schools, where pre-packaged or scripted lessons can limit the creativity and independence of teachers to plan their own lessons and incorporate innovative lesson ideas. However, in other strata of the education sector such as low-fee private schools, where it is not always possible to employ skilled, well-trained teachers, assisting teachers with a pre-scripted lesson can be the most effective way of improving the quality of lesson delivery. And even in higher-end schools, the method can be useful to support new and trainee teachers, underperforming teachers, or substitute teachers.
The generation and collection of metadata – subtle background information about a class – is possible when conducting online classes on certain platforms. Analysis of this data can yield valuable insights about students and teachers, which are not possible to gain in a physical setting. For example, by storing data on microphone usage during classes it becomes possible to track the amount of ‘talk-time’ the teacher occupies versus individual students, how many times different students speak in a class and for how long, etc. When analysed over time, this data can reveal patterns about how interactive classes are, the extent to which different teachers encourage class participation, how much different students contribute to classes, and more – all highly valuable information that can be used for school improvement, and which would not exist in offline classes.
It is also possible to automatically monitor the type of device a student is using, how frequently they join a class late, how stable their internet connection is, etc. This is useful information for knowing about students’ home situations, and potentially even for understanding the root causes of behavioural problems students might be exhibiting. This data can enable schools and teachers to more accurately interpret problems and make necessary interventions to assist students who are struggling both academically and behaviourally.
In many good schools, lessons are frequently observed by a range of stakeholders: principals, middle-level leaders, peer teachers, or in larger school chains representatives from centralised departments. In less progressive contexts, the purpose of these observations is basic accountability, such as monitoring that a teacher is attending class and delivering the syllabus she or he is supposed to be. In more progressive schools, observations are an important element of school improvement: they are used to identify the professional development needs of teachers, are the basis of coaching cycles, are a mechanism through which teachers can support each other to implement shared practices, and are a data source used in the evaluation of teachers’ performance.
When a school is running its lessons online, it becomes possible to conduct far more frequent classroom observations. Busy school leaders who otherwise would not have time to visit a lot of classrooms can keep classes running in the background while they sign paperwork; observers can seamlessly hop between lessons without losing time in moving between physical classrooms, and the possibility is opened up of teachers and leaders across different schools in different locations observing each other and professionally developing collaboratively. In this way, learning opportunities for teachers are increased, and professional development can be made more individual-specific and actionable.
Ideally, education is not supposed to end with the school day but should be a continuous process that moves seamlessly between school, home, and other environments with parental support. In reality, unfortunately, this is rarely the case, as parents are not normally in a position to keep closely abreast of what is being taught in school and how their child is performing, and therefore are not easily equipped to directly support their child’s learning. Online classes, however, can help to shift this dynamic and make the ideal of continuity in education between home and school more likely to be achieved.
When a student attends an online class from home, the parent can observe from the background. Initially, when they gain the ability to witness classes, parents tend to develop a greater appreciation for the hard work teachers do and become more supportive. They also get to witness first-hand whether their child is engaging properly and how their child is performing in the class compared to other students. In offline classes, this is left entirely to the teacher, and parents can even be in denial if a teacher reports that their child is not engaged in class or not performing well. With online classes, parents get to see reality for themselves and are more likely to make appropriate interventions at home and be receptive to specific feedback and action points suggested by teachers.
By outlining these advantages of online teaching and learning, I do not at all mean to make the case that schools should move fully online. For all the reasons mentioned at the beginning of this article and more, online learning comes with a great number of disadvantages too and is often impractical. It will always be vitally important developmentally that children should spend the majority of time physically among their peer group.
However, I hope to have shown how online classes are not always just a burden imposed when schools have to close, but can actually be pedagogically advantageous, enhancing the teaching and learning process in certain ways. One of the motivations behind evolving a ‘hybrid’ model of schooling, in which some learning takes place face-to-face and other learning happens online, could be in order to spend a proportion of teaching time harnessing these advantages of online lessons that are unavailable in offline settings.
About the author:
Roshan Gandhi is the Chief Executive Officer, City Montessori School, Lucknow
As Chief Executive Officer at City Montessori School (CMS) – the world’s largest city-school with 57,000 students across 18 campuses in Lucknow – Roshan Gandhi is leading organisational transformation and modernisation, empowering CMS's 4,500-strong team to deliver a bold new vision for quality skills-based education at scale. He has also overseen the overhauling of CMS's infrastructure, business operations, and tech integration. A graduate of the University of Oxford with an MBA in Educational Leadership from University College London (UCL), Roshan is also currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Educational Leadership at UCL. He has worked in and continues to consult for multiple educational technology companies, is a frequent keynote and panel speaker at educational conferences, and frequently publishes on educational topics.
Powered By Innovation, Education Prevails!
Using twenty-first-century pedagogy and innovative teaching methods and technology made it possible to safeguard the academic interests of learners by making education accessible in spite of all the challenges posed by the pandemic.
Innovation is the lifeblood of education! Using twenty-first-century pedagogy and innovative teaching methods and technology made it possible to safeguard the academic interests of learners by making education accessible in spite of all the challenges posed by the pandemic.
Through innovative use of educational technology, the students’ interest was safeguarded by the adoption of hybrid learning in the Lawrence School, Sanawar. Today, there are a majority of students who have returned physically to the Campus however a certain number are still at their homes. It is therefore through physical as well as bespoke hybrid online interactions that the School ensures that no child is left behind, wherever they may be physically! Through technology, for those who are still at their homes and were not able to attend School physically a facilitated virtual real-time interaction has replaced much of the physical communication between students and instructors that was the norm pre-Covid. What this enables the School to do is to gainfully engage the remote students actively in online lectures and activities; and assimilate them into a living, breathing class by incorporating interactive technology and virtual components.
Truly, change is the only constant! And, when the entire world is going through myriad changes for better and for worse, how can School Education be left untouched? Indeed, that is exactly where school innovation and an agile pedagogy come into play. And, on which side of the conundrum one finds oneself on, in a period of global churning and challenge, will depend very much on the use of innovative methods of teaching and learning at School.
The Lawrence School, Sanawar was witness to a wondrous phenomenon in which even after there were no students in the School buildings, learning never stopped because the School, through its dedicated and hardworking teachers and using cutting edge technology brought the syllabus and the curriculum home to the students. It began with assignments, went on to PowerPoint presentations followed by asynchronous teaching, and then, finally graduated to synchronous teaching via a brilliant remote learning program.
This was a year unlike any in the history of the 173-year-old The Lawrence School, Sanawar. Sanawar is a home away from home for all the children who are away from their parents and families for eight months a year. Consequently, the teachers and the pastoral care staff play a very significant role in the life of the children. The teachers and staff members are in loco parentis during the eight months that the children stay away from their homes. It is the teachers and the pastoral staff who provide moral support, care, sustenance even, and keep the children grounded and happy. Teachers at The Lawrence School, Sanawar do much more than merely teach. They serve as mentors, parents, friends, philosophers, and guides to the students. It is this very fact that is precisely the reason that leads to strong lifelong bonds between the students and the teachers who take on the persona of gurus for the children. It certainly was a very strong possibility that the teachers too, evacuated the campus once the children had left for their homes. So, did they do so?
No! During the ongoing COVID 19 pandemic, the teachers chose to stay back in the School and elected not to go back to their homes in faraway states including Madhya Pradesh, Delhi, and West Bengal. They took online classes while residing in their official service accommodation because of the care and the affection they had for their students.
When the children left on 18 March 2020, it was logical, natural and only to be expected that the teaching staff and the pastoral staff would logically leave the campus, once the children had been safely handed over to their parents. Instead, they chose to stay and attend professional development seminars so that they could ensure that they were equipped and competent to take online classes. Amongst the challenges we jointly faced during the implementation of these methods was the need to change mindsets, upgrade skill sets, and invest in increasing bandwidth as well as software and hardware. Almost overnight, teachers who had been teaching in the classroom, some for more than 30 years, changed gears; unlearned and learned new ways to deliver the curriculum, and then re-learned so that they were competent and able to take online classes.
The School was witness to a wondrous phenomenon in which even after there were no students in the School buildings, learning never stopped because the School Team inspired by the School motto Never Give In carried on and bashed on regardless until they and their wards were through! Of course, screen fatigue did set in but that was offset by the sheer joy that the pupils took in their online extra-curricular activities. The pros and cons of using technology for learning are well documented; the success of this innovation in learning was largely due to inculcating digital citizenship in all our stakeholders so that this had a positive impact on the community. And fine-tuning the programme in line with the feedback received from the stakeholders.
FVLP– Facilitated Virtual Learning Programme:
This was an innovative step in the face of the unprecedented global pandemic taken by The Lawrence School, Sanawar.
- The School team was most determined that the education of the students not be impaired as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic.
- The School team took on the challenge and decided to deploy the Facilitated Virtual Learning Programme for the students virtually using cutting edge digital technology.
- With the first ever online classes at Sanawar, the FVLP was launched on the 6th of April, 2020.
This deployment of innovative teaching methods via the FVLP had a very deep and extremely positive impact at our School.
- Feedback from the Parents: 94% expressed a positive response to the FVLP.
- Feedback from the students: 91% expressed a positive response to the FVLP.
- Feedback from the parents: 94% expressed a positive response to the FVLP.
- On the 8th of July, 2020, Phase II of the Facilitated Virtual Learning Programme re-commenced after the summer vacation.
- Under the wise guidance of our Chairperson Mrs. Anita Karwal, the School integrated the Alternative Academic Calendar published by the NCERT for teaching–learning purposes into the FVLP. There were a veritable plethora of benefits of using this innovative remote learning programme at our School. Student learning was safeguarded as was their well-being, fitness, and self-enhancement pursuits. Not only did the School ensure that the academic side was looked after but also made provision for extracurricular activities including Hobbies and Sports. This ensured that even in the online education made available to students, the all-around education i.e. a hallmark of the School was not neglected.
The School also made available Counseling, Health, well-being, Debating, Collaboration with the UNODC on the Sustainable Development Goals, Model United Nations, Personality Development, Career counseling, and online programs including webinars to the students.
Some of the online events conducted were:
1. Webinars on Emotional Wellbeing.
2. Webinar on Know Your Headmaster.
3. Webinar on the Everest Expedition – 2013.
4. Webinar on presentation on The Lawrence School, Sanawar girls’ expedition to Mt. Kilimanjaro – 2019.
5. Webinar on Fall Semester 2020 in US and Canadian Universities: Panel Discussion.
6. Online Zine making Workshop.
7. Virtual Art Workshop.
8. Virtual Inter House Sr English Debate
9. 3rd Edition of SNAMUN 20.
10. Senior English Declamation
11. Hindi Poetry Recitation – Prep School
12. Virtual Yoga Workshop.
13. Hindi Sahitya Samaroh
14. Cyber Security Workshop
15. Webinar on series “Imagine & Inspire” with the Mentor Dr. Niti Pall.
16. Webinar on series “Imagine & Inspire” with Mr. Parikshit Sahni.
17. Webinar on series “Imagine & Inspire” with Mr. Varun Sharma.
18. Webinar on ‘Contribution of Indian Soldiers in World War-I with H.E. Ambassador Navtej S. Sarna.
19. The Sanawar Literature Festival.
20. The Collaboration between our students and the UNODC on the SDG’s.
The Lawrence School, Sanawar has weathered many a storm and endured against all odds since it was founded in 1847. It is this Never Give In credo that is the reason behind this great educational institution’s success. Many valuable lessons were learned from the trials and tribulations of the Covid 19 pandemic.
The efficacy of Sanawar is evidenced by the fact that it is the proud alma mater of many eminent men and women who have made their mark all over the world. And yes, it is definitely this very positivity, powered by a growth mindset and innovation that is the lifeblood of an institution that is ready to march towards its bicentenary!
About the author:
Himmat S. Dhillon is the Headmaster of The Lawrence School, Sanawar. He was previously Principal & CEO of GEMS Our Own English High School, Fujairah since 2014. Prior to this, he was Principal of The Gandhi School, Jakarta, Indonesia from 2008 to 2013. An alumnus of The Lawrence School, Sanawar, he was formerly Head of the Department of English at The Doon School, Dehradun.
Mr. Dhillon is equally passionate about literature, travel, exploring culture, writing, nature, and swimming.
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