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A future in artificial intelligence: As Blippar’s Mitra sees it

He foresaw artificial intelligence and computer learning way back in 1997 and brought truth to it. He foresees it yet again… the way technology can bridge several gaps that might come up in the next 10-15 years.

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Dropping out of high-school to do something meaningful, Ambarish Mitra started his career exploring technology and is now the CEO and co-founder of Blippar, and is widely considered as one of the leaders in visual browser and augmented reality. The company now has more than 250 people operating from more than 10 offices, catering to more than 50 million users.

ScooNews, when presenting at Web Summit’s first event, SURGE 2016 Bengaluru, had a chance to listen and talk to Ambarish Mitra as he discussed about all the upcoming technology and artificial intelligence and how Blippar was leading the market in bringing about a change in mobile phones and its uses.

Mitra, who today is leading the technological arena with his imagination, wonders aloud ‘how and where the world is heading, and how can the majority of the planet actually access information from the information from the world.’ He believes there are two paramount concepts taking it forward, one being computer vision and artificial intelligence, both of which work hand-in-hand to help it progressively grow. He goes on to explain ‘when a computer looks at things, it actually alienates and creates categories and structure’ citing an example right from several highly technical and technological computer labs, ‘where a computer is looking at an environment and is trying to isolate the cattle from grass, roads from buildings. It is the computer’s basic cognition that works as it doesn’t have any further intelligence. Artificial intelligence, the next thing, driven by the machine learning, adds to a computer’s basic cognition. Machine learning, deep computer vision, artificial intelligence, etc, have thus become the buzz words that the world is about to hear a lot for the next 10 to 20 years, as against the till-now hyped phrases, e-commerce, ssl pages, secure socket layers, etc, which were iconic and dominating the last 15 to 18 years of formative years of internet. But the next generation of internet is massively going to be driven by programs and self-learning. So machine learning is actually a subset of the bigger concept of artificial intelligence that actually allows computer algorithms to autonomously study data and information and take positions. All these programming and algorithms can sometimes go out of control, though can be rewritten and reset, which ultimately makes artificial intelligence smarter over a period of time.

It’s not just the technology that is growing, the world’s population and the population’s laze too is on an ever-high. When 50 years back, a country had calculated 2 billion people, and today has reached 10 billion, and the rest of the world following suit, how are we planning to cope-up with the gaps thus being created. A space crunch, land crunch, crunch of doctors, teachers, knowledge crunch, crunch in proper infrastructure policies for the growing number of metros, it all can be well visualised, with most of the governments across the globe not yet waking up to this call.

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So we believe artificial intelligence and computer vision could be strong contributors. Not only for the most prominent of issues that we foresee but also for the most basic of knowledge that we’d like our 1 to 5 year olds to be empowered with.

Agriculture, something that our latest generation doesn’t even bother about, but can this lethargy in agriculture be long tolerated? Farmers could be given devices or even robots for day-to-day farming, which today are being developed at low costs, ranging between $20 and 30, for advice on irrigation and weather predictions.

Come to think of national security, latest technology has become an integral part of the system here as well. However, national security is still manually manoeuvred, and because of a lack of enough human resources, we miss out on real-time predictions. This gap can be filled by artificial intelligence.

Yeah, that’s what Mitra is actually known for, his love for technology, unconventional ideas, helping manpower, towards an easier world! One of his efforts today is called Blippar, we look forward to many more!

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Knowledge

Five ways for Indian students to have a successful study abroad experience

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For many students, studying abroad is a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity.  However, when leaving their home country, many students are unsure of what will happen once they leave, how the atmosphere will be, or whether they will be able to adapt to the atmosphere to help students’ journeys be promising and full of adventure. Mayank Sharma, Head of Global Partnerships & Country Head India at Prodigy Finance has five great tips that can aid students in settling and enjoying their study abroad program.

  1. Embrace cultural immersion:
    It is always a good idea to begin learning about the cultures and values of the country you are in because doing so will not only improve your lifestyle there but will also make it easier for you to get along with the locals. To learn more about the country you are in, you can attend cultural events, and local festivals, be friendly with your peers, hop in local cuisine, get familiar with their local gourmet and delicacies, and visit historical sites.
  2. Learn the language:
    Learning the language of the country you’re visiting or practicing their accent will not only be great fun to begin with but will also allow you to become more acquainted with the locals. It’s okay not to be fluent, but trying to acquire a new accent or learn a new language will only benefit you later in life.
  3. Build a diverse network:
    While only studying can bore you and limit your contact with your peers, try to build relationships with people both inside and outside of your University. You can do this by participating in college events, getting to know students from other Universities, joining clubs, and attending community events. These experiences will not only leave you with beautiful memories to look back on in the future, but they will also help you build a solid rapport with your friends, and who knows, these friends may later in life turn out to be one of the most influential people who can help or guide you to shape your future.
  4. Travel and explore:
    Traveling is a great way to get away from day-to-day life especially when you are a student and far away from home; only studying can become tedious, whereas planning a short trip to your neighboring region will allow you to discover new places, meet new people and learn different customs, the best part is that you can use your student discount travel program to make your trip more affordable. College life never comes back more than the academic journey; these experiences will shape your core beliefs and allow you to see the world in a new way, making you a better person and knowledgeable with beautiful memories to look back on.
  5. The art of maintaining a healthy lifestyle and balance:
    While staying in a different country far from your home where homemade food is challenging to find and lifestyle changes are possible, find a healthy diet that suits your body and take the weekend off, place self-care first. Getting enough sleep each night, going for a walk in the park, or joining a gym or fitness club will not only help you stay physically fit but will also leave you feeling calm and relaxed. Putting these things into practice will keep you healthy and make your study abroad experience more fulfilling, even though they may seem very trivial.

Studying abroad is a lifetime experience. Make the most of it. Doing so will not only expand your academic skills but also shape your future. Don’t forget that it’s not only about the destination; it’s also about the journey and the experiences that shape you along the way.

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Education

BMC Plans to Introduce CBSE Curriculum in Every Ward’s Civic School in Mumbai

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Mumbai, 18th September 2023– The Education Department of the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) has unveiled an ambitious plan to introduce the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) curriculum in every civic school within Mumbai’s wards. With the aim of expanding the reach of quality education, BMC authorities are now actively seeking suitable school buildings in each ward to apply for CBSE approval.

Currently, BMC oversees the operation of 11 schools that are affiliated with the CBSE board, in addition to one school each offering the Indian Certificate of School Education (ICSE), Cambridge, and International Baccalaureate (IB) curricula.

The decision to extend CBSE curriculum offerings comes on the heels of BMC’s successful implementation of the CBSE curriculum in its existing schools. Officials from the civic body’s education wing have directed local education officers in each ward to provide data regarding the availability of school buildings that meet the necessary infrastructural requirements for CBSE affiliation.

An official from the education department stated, “Local education officers have been asked to submit data on the number of school buildings in their respective areas and identify those capable of meeting the infrastructural prerequisites essential for CBSE approval. Appropriate actions will be taken following the collation of this information.”

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Highlighting the intent behind this initiative, the officer explained, “There has always been a plan to introduce more civic schools offering non-state board curricula in the city. Urban parents increasingly prefer enrolling their children in non-state board schools. When BMC initiated these schools, the objective was to make popular curricula accessible to underprivileged students who typically could not secure admissions in high-profile non-state board schools. After successfully introducing non-state board curricula in select civic schools, we are now exploring the feasibility of expanding this model.”

Traditionally, civic schools in Mumbai have adhered to the state board curriculum. However, BMC adopted the innovative approach of offering more sought-after non-state board curricula in civic schools in 2020. This initiative commenced with one school each affiliated with CBSE and ICSE curriculum, and in response to growing demand, BMC has since established an additional 10 CBSE-affiliated schools.

Confirming the preliminary nature of the plan, D Gangadharan, BMC Deputy Commissioner (Education), stated, “The initiative is currently in its initial stages, as we are presently focused on data collection.”

This visionary move by the BMC promises to broaden educational opportunities for students across Mumbai and enhance the overall quality of education in civic schools.

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Education

हिंदी दिवस 2023- भारत में हिंदी माध्यम की शिक्षा का महत्व: भाषाई विविधता और राष्ट्रीय पहचान के संरक्षण

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जैसे ही भारत 2023 में G20 की प्रेसिडेंसी ग्रहण करता है, हमारी धरोहर और आधुनिक उपलब्धियां मुख्य रूप से प्रस्तुत होती हैं। “India” से “भारत” का परिवर्तन हमारे नींवों की ओर पलटने का एक प्रतीक है, भारतीय दर्शनिक धरोहर की खोज करते हुए। यह परिवर्तन हमारी सांस्कृतिक और भाषाई विविधता के संरक्षण के महत्व की याद दिलाने वाला है। इस संदर्भ में, भारत में हिंदी माध्यम शिक्षा के महत्व की चर्चा करना महत्वपूर्ण है, क्योंकि हिंदी अब भी पूरी तरह से विकसित नहीं है, और शिक्षा क्षेत्र में हिंदी भाषा को प्रोत्साहित करने के महत्व को बढ़ावा देने की आवश्यकता है।

भारत एक भाषाई बिन्दुमाला है, जहां देश भर में सैकड़ों भाषाएँ और बोलियाँ बोली जाती हैं। हिंदी, सबसे अधिक बोली जाने वाली भाषाओं में से एक के रूप में, विभिन्न क्षेत्रों के लोगों को जोड़ने का कार्य करती है। हिंदी माध्यम शिक्षा भाषाई विविधता को संरक्षित करने में महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाती है, विविध भाषाई समूहों के बीच संचार के लिए सामान्य धरोहर प्रदान करके। इसके साथ ही, हिंदी केवल एक भाषा नहीं है; यह हमारी सांस्कृतिक पहचान का एक अभिन्न हिस्सा है। हिंदी को शिक्षा में अपनाने से छात्र अपनी जड़ों से जुड़ सकते हैं, पारंपरिक साहित्य, लोककथाएँ और इतिहास को समझ सकते हैं, जो हिंदी में लिखे गए हैं, और अपने धरोहर के प्रति गहरी सराहना कर सकते हैं। इसे अपनी जड़ों से जुड़ने से एक आत्मा का आभास और राष्ट्रीय गर्व पैदा होता है।

इसके अलावा, भारत की बड़ी हिस्सेदारी ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में बसी हुई है, जहां हिंदी अक्सर संचार की प्रमुख भाषा होती है। हिंदी माध्यम शिक्षा नगरीय-ग्रामीण अंतर को पार करके सुनिश्चित करती है कि ग्रामीण छात्र अपनी मातृभाषा में गुणवत्ता शिक्षा प्राप्त करें। इससे उन्हें ज्ञान और कौशल प्राप्त होता है ताकि वे भारत के विकास में भाग लें।

क्या आपने कभी सोचा है कि हिंदी भारत में अब भी पूरी तरह से विकसित और चुनी नहीं जाती है?

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भारत की भाषाई विविधता हिंदी की मानक विकास में एक चुनौती प्रस्तुत करती है। विभिन्न क्षेत्रों में अपनी अपनी प्रकार की हिंदी होती है, और मानकीकरण की प्रक्रिया जटिल है। ब्रिटिश औपचारिकवाद की ऐतिहासिक विरासत ने अंग्रेजी को बहुत सारे बड़े संस्थानों और शहरी क्षेत्रों में शिक्षा की प्राधान्य भाषा बना दिया है। इस अंग्रेजी के प्रभाव ने हिंदी के विकास को रोक दिया है, जिससे अंग्रेजी और हिंदी माध्यम शिक्षा के बीच का अनुभाग महसूस होता है। हिंदी साहित्य, अनुसंधान, और शैक्षिक संसाधन अक्सर उन विपणियों के पीछे रह जाते हैं जो अंग्रेजी में उपलब्ध होते हैं। हिंदी के रूप में एक भाषा और शिक्षा के माध्यम के विकास के लिए संविदानिक संसाधनों, पाठ्यक्रम विकास, और शिक्षक प्रशिक्षण में विशाल निवेश की आवश्यकता है।

हिंदी को शिक्षा में प्रोत्साहित करना: हिंदी को अंग्रेजी माध्यम के स्कूलों में भी समान महत्व दिया जाना चाहिए ताकि हिंदी माध्यम और अंग्रेजी माध्यम के स्कूलों में हिंदी के साथ समय दिया जा सके। इसका साधन द्विभाषिक शिक्षा के माध्यम से और अंग्रेजी के साथ हिंदी साहित्य को प्रोत्साहित करके हो सकता है।

पाठ्यक्रम का विकास: हिंदी माध्यम शिक्षा के लिए पाठ्यक्रम को समय-समय पर सुधारते रहने की आवश्यकता है ताकि यह समकालिक शैक्षिक मानकों को पूरा कर सके। इसमें डिजिटल शिक्षा साधनों, अपडेटेड पाठ्यक्रम पुस्तकों को शामिल करना और हिंदी में अनुसंधान को प्रोत्साहित करना शामिल है।

शिक्षक प्रशिक्षण: हिंदी माध्यम शिक्षा की गुणवत्ता को बेहतर बनाने के लिए शिक्षक प्रशिक्षण कार्यक्रमों में निवेश करना महत्वपूर्ण है। अच्छे तरीके से प्रशिक्षित शिक्षक शिक्षा का अनुभव और प्रभावी बना सकते हैं।

डिजिटल समावेशन: प्रौद्योगिकी का सहारा लेने से हिंदी और अंग्रेजी माध्यम शिक्षा के बीच के अंतर को कम करने में मदद मिल सकती है। हिंदी में डिजिटल सामग्री छात्रों के लिए सुलभ और आकर्षक शिक्षा प्रदान कर सकती है।

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निष्कर्षण भारत में हिंदी माध्यम शिक्षा भाषाई विविधता को संरक्षित करने, छात्रों को उनकी जड़ों से जोड़ने और नगरीय-ग्रामीण भिन्न को निष्कर्षित करने के महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाती है। हालांकि, हिंदी को भाषा और शिक्षा का माध्यम विकसित करने का काम भारत की भाषाई विविधता और अंग्रेजी की प्रमुखता के कारण चुनौतियों का सामना कर रहा है। हिंदी को प्रोत्साहित करने और एक अधिक प्रगतिशील शिक्षा प्रणाली बनाने के लिए, हमें अंग्रेजी माध्यम स्कूलों में हिंदी को समान महत्व देना चाहिए, हिंदी पाठ्यक्रम को सुधारने, शिक्षक प्रशिक्षण में निवेश करने, और डिजिटल समावेशन को अपनाने का साहस करना होगा। इस तरह, हम सुनिश्चित कर सकते हैं कि हिंदी हमारी राष्ट्रीय पहचान और धरोहर का एक अभिन्न हिस्सा बनी रहती है, साथ ही हमारी युवा पीढ़ी को एक और अधिक समावेशी और उज्ज्वल भविष्य के लिए तैयार करते हैं।

इस हिंदी दिवस, चलिए हम अपनी संस्कृति और भाषा को नई ऊँचाइयों तक पहुँचाने का संकल्प लें। यह समय है हमारे शिक्षा प्रणाली में हिंदी की भूमिका का पुनर्मूल्यांकन करने का। प्रारंभिक शिक्षा से उच्च अध्ययन तक, हिंदी को एक मौलिक भाषा के रूप में पहचाना जाना चाहिए। छात्रों को हिंदी में संवाद करने के लिए प्रोत्साहित करना चाहिए, बिना किसी डर या भेदभाव के। परिवर्तन हमारे अंदर से शुरू होता है। हमारे दैनिक जीवन में हिंदी को ग्रहण और प्रोत्साहित करने का समय आ गया है, और वैश्विक मंच में। इसके द्वारा, हम न केवल अपनी सांस्कृतिक धरोहर को संरक्षित करते हैं, बल्कि भाषाओं के वैश्विक चादर के योजनाकारों में भी योगदान करते हैं। हिंदी दिवस केवल एक उत्सव का दिन नहीं है; यह हमारे भाषा, संस्कृति, और राष्ट्रीय धरोहर के प्रति हमारे प्रतिबद्धता का एक स्मरण है। मिलकर, हम हिंदी को एक एकता, समावेशन, और वैश्विक महत्व की भाषा बना सकते हैं।

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Knowledge

Teaching EQ to Youngsters!

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Did you know that we have two brains and two minds in general?

One is rational and the other is emotional. And they are two totally different kinds of intelligence. With the dawn of Emotional Intelligence (EQ) spreading rapidly in the lives of our children, amongst families, with the parents, in schools and its curriculum the poignant question is;

How To Create Emotionally Intelligent Children?

The theory of EQ is usually considered rather profound and complex. However, if we dig a bit deeper, we start realizing, there are ways to simplify it and make it practical. The world of EQ advocates working closely with our emotions. The emotions that we all are born with. A newborn baby arrives with an array of emotions. It is a compulsory package that unfolds step by step through various life experiences.

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A few years ago the concept of EQ gained more attention when Daniel Goleman, an American Author, Psychologist, and Science journalist, reported on the brain and behavioral sciences. The theory of Six Basic Human Emotions- of fear, joy, love, surprise, sadness, and anger resurfaced.

Interestingly, these elements of human emotions were also deeply embedded in our Vedic literature, Indian spiritual scriptures and writings, an impressive and astonishing work by our great thinkers, sages, and philosophers thousands of years ago. Emotions then, have always been around – validated by both Science and Spirituality.

Children are a bundle of intense energy. If we ever want to understand emotions in the most simple ways, it is through them. They are a representation of what every emotion is supposed to be. Raw and real.

And this is why, the best time to build EQ is early and every day.

Building EQ is a process. When babies coo, they are communicating. When infants cry they are sharing a message. When toddlers throw tantrums, they are sharing confusion. When preschoolers shout, they are sharing discomfort. At school, at college, and in life as an adult, everybody uses emotions as tools to communicate.

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It is not just a parent’s or a teacher’s job to build emotionally intelligent children, it is the work of everybody as a team. Here is how we can start.

1. Talking about emotions: There is no perfect age to talk about emotions. Emotions are a part of our everyday life, hence talking about them every day can be made as a natural practice. To ask questions such as ‘How are you feeling today?’, ‘What happens if you listen to a sad story?’, ‘What makes you happy- music or playing with friends?’ The purpose is to normalize talking about how children are feeling at home and school.
Tip: Use stories. Stories are great conversation starters.

2. Adding words to every emotion: The way adults feel anger is different from how children experience it. EQ is to bring awareness to how one ‘feels’ a specific emotion. With children, parents and teachers can begin with defining one emotion at a time. For eg. Asking questions such as ‘What do you do when you feel happy?’ , ‘What happens when you feel scared? Or ‘What do you mean when you say you are feeling sad?’ The idea is to help children identify what happiness and sadness mean to THEM as it is a unique experience.
Tip: Begin with one powerful question every day, ‘What was your most dominant feeling today?’

3. Sharing your own emotions: As adults, we are orchestrated to suppress our emotions in front of our children as parents and as teachers. Children learn better through observations. The best way to open channels to bring EQ in everyday life is to share your own vulnerabilities with children. The more teachers and parents share how they feel about their own behavior and that of others, the easier it will be for children to understand that it is natural and they will in turn learn to own, express, and channelize their emotions.
Tip: Use everyday situations to talk about emotions. Fancy worksheets, creative activities, videos add value, but the simplest way to begin is to simply be honest about how you are feeling to the youngsters.

4. To respond rather than react! Awareness is everything. One classic way to help children build a strong EQ is to help them deal with them gently. To let them know that it is okay to feel jealous, angry, sad, and embarrassed. But, to teach them age-appropriate ways to express the same emotions in a healthy manner. For eg. To pause before reacting, to ask for help, to share with someone close, to state them in words. A child can be taught that when he or she is angry, instead of hitting someone else or screaming, they can simply express what made them angry.
Tip: Art, stories, and interaction – all have a key role to play here.

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5. They are tools! The children of today are quick absorbers and have higher processing speeds. Emotions can be powerful tools that can be used every day. A secret to understanding their friends, to share an idea, to deal with failures, and also to be successful in their everyday goals. The more we show them the potency of the emotions, the more they will learn to channelize them and use it to their benefit.
Tip: Share examples of inspiring stories or people who have achieved goals through self-belief, through love, and being positive. Explain to children how emotions are a very powerful tool to be used to create themselves, better relationships, and life, in general.

The only way to help children learn about emotions is to simplify it. Just raising the awareness levels to something that naturally exists. To stay open and vulnerable and let them know it’s okay. To feel love. To feel resentment. To be happy, and sad. Peaceful and angry. We go through the entire gamut – so why deny it to our young ones?

Every exchange that children have with their parents, teachers, and friends are moments of profound possibilities – for them to accept and embrace emotions, to channelize and use this power to create their best versions. Emotion is energy in motion – let’s give direction to it for our young ones!

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International Literacy Day: Why Physical Books Still Matter?

International Literacy Day is celebrated on September 8 every year to raise awareness of the importance of literacy. The theme for 2023 is “Literacy for a Sustainable Future”

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India has a long and rich history of literacy. Even before the British era, there were many schools and libraries in India. The ancient Indian universities of Takshashila and Nalanda were world-renowned centers of learning. The British colonial government made some efforts to promote literacy in India, but these efforts were largely unsuccessful.

In today’s rapidly evolving digital age, the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) has led to widespread discussions about the obsolescence of physical books. Many argue that with the vast availability of e-books, audiobooks, and other digital formats, the traditional printed book is losing its relevance. However, the sustenance of physical books remains a topic of profound importance, rooted in the rich history of literacy and the unique advantages they offer.

Literacy and books, especially physical ones like newspapers, magazines, textbooks, and novels, have an inseparable connection. Books have been essential tools in the development of literacy for centuries. They are not just carriers of knowledge but also catalysts for learning. For many, the tactile experience of holding a book, flipping through its pages, and inhaling the scent of printed paper is an integral part of the reading process. This physical interaction enhances the overall reading experience and aids in comprehension and retention.

Prof. (Dr.) YSR Murthy, Vice Chancellor, RV University, Bengaluru had this to say, when asked about the same. “Despite the rapid growth of digitalization which has affected all walks of life, physical books still hold the fort and are relevant for several reasons. Experience of reading a book from a Kindle or a computer screen can never match reading from a physical book. The mere touch of a book or its smell and feel can electrify a reader.  Online books require the availability of the internet and bandwidth. Long hours of looking at a screen can affect the eyes. The physical book can also give a sense of ownership and emotional connection, unlike a digital copy.

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When it comes to newspapers, though the young generation is consuming news through media and other online platforms,  hard copies are still relevant. In the past decade, we have seen how newspapers can hold their fort despite the massive onslaught of digitalization. Digital media is important from the standpoint of conservation of the environment, reduction in cutting down of trees for the production of newsprint, and saving on the physical space for holding books and newspapers. Despite these relative advantages, hard copies of books and newspapers hold their sway on any day.”

Moreover, numerous biological and scientific advantages are associated with reading physical books. Studies have shown that reading from a physical book, as opposed to a digital screen, can lead to improved focus and reduced eye strain. The absence of glaring screens and notifications minimizes distractions, allowing readers to immerse themselves fully in the content. Additionally, the act of physically turning pages has been linked to better memory recall.

The importance of promoting and preserving the art of literature cannot be overstated. In recent times, AI has been employed to generate books, and some individuals have used their names as authors, threatening the authenticity of creative works. This raises concerns about the erosion of artistic integrity and originality. Physical books, created through the sweat and inspiration of human authors, serve as a testament to the power of human creativity. They are tangible artifacts of culture and history, reflecting the unique perspectives, ideas, and stories of their creators. “In the digital era, physical books and newspapers retain enduring value. Beyond their tangible charm, they provide a refuge from screen saturation. The tactile experience of turning pages and the weight of a book in hand evoke a deeper connection with content that screens cannot replicate. Physical books and newspapers hold historical significance, chronicling our past. Marginal notes and dog-eared pages carry personal history. Print ensures lasting existence, impervious to technology shifts.

Despite the proliferation of e-learning platforms and digital resources, many students and educators still prefer physical textbooks. They find that flipping through pages, highlighting text, and making notes in the margins enhances their learning experience. Moreover, physical textbooks do not require access to the internet or electronic devices, making them reliable and accessible resources, especially in areas with limited connectivity. These formats bridge generations, preserving culture and knowledge. In a world of fleeting digital content, physical books and newspapers stand as timeless, trusted sources of information and storytelling.”said Prof. Divya Gupta, Head of Marketing & Communications and Professor of Practice at IFIM Institutions.

Dr. Yajulu Medury, Vice-Chancellor of Mahindra University said, “Literacy empowers minds, transforms lives, and builds nations; it is the key to unlocking boundless possibilities. We are committed to nurturing a generation of lifelong learners, for we believe that literacy not only opens doors to knowledge but also paves the way for a brighter and more equitable future. It is imperative that we reassess the future of the teaching profession and acknowledge the profound impact it has on our society. The unwavering commitment and dedication of teachers serve as a testament to the profound transformative power of education. In India, their contribution to the education sector is immeasurable.”

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This takes us back to the COVID-19 pandemic, as during that time, people were confined to their homes and digital relationships became the norm, many turned to reading as a source of solace and hope. Physical books provided a tangible escape from the overwhelming digital realm. They offered comfort in their physicality, as readers could hold them close during uncertain times. The resurgence of interest in physical books during the pandemic highlighted their enduring appeal and the irreplaceable role they play in providing both knowledge and comfort.

While the rise of AI and digital formats has led to debates about the future of physical books, their sustenance remains paramount. Physical books are deeply intertwined with the development of literacy, offering unique advantages for readers’ focus, comprehension, and retention. They also hold significant value as vessels of human creativity and as symbols of culture and history. Physical books are tangible and durable objects that can survive for centuries, unlike digital books that are vulnerable to technological obsolescence or cyberattacks. Physical books also have a unique aesthetic and sentimental value that cannot be replicated by digital books.

According to a report by the International Publishers Association, the global book market is worth an estimated $150 billion, and it is expected to grow by 2.1% annually until 2025. This shows that there is still a strong demand for physical books, despite the competition from digital media. Physical books are not only valuable for individuals, but also for society as a whole. They are essential tools for education, literacy, and democracy. They foster critical thinking, creativity, and diversity of opinions. They also promote social inclusion and cohesion, as they can reach people who may not have access to digital devices or the internet. In fact, studies have shown that reading physical books can improve empathy and emotional intelligence.

After independence, the Indian government made a concerted effort to improve literacy rates. As a result, India’s literacy rate has increased from 12% in 1947 to 77.7% in 2022. India also has a large and growing book market, worth an estimated $6.76 billion in 2019. India is the second-largest English-language book publisher in the world, after the United States. India also produces books in many regional languages, such as Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, and Urdu. Books are an important part of India’s culture and identity, and they play a vital role in promoting education, literacy, and democracy. Despite these gains, there are still many challenges to achieving universal literacy in India. One challenge is the diversity of languages spoken in India. There are over 1000 languages spoken in India, and many of these languages do not have a written form. Another challenge is poverty. Many families in India cannot afford to send their children to school. Despite these challenges, India is committed to achieving universal literacy. The government has launched a number of programs to promote literacy, including the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY).

These programs have helped to improve literacy rates in India, but there is still more work to be done. We need to continue to invest in education and literacy programs, so that everyone in India can read and write.

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There is a growing trend towards e-books and audiobooks. However, many people argue that physical books are more immersive and engaging than e-books. Studies have shown that people who read physical books retain more information than those who read e-books. Physical books also have a tactile quality that e-books cannot replicate. In addition, physical books can be shared and passed down from generation to generation. This creates a sense of community and connection that is not possible with e-books. Emphasising on the same, Sandhya Gatti, Head of PD and School Projects, Chaman Bhartiya School said, “In our digital age, the significance of physical books and newspapers has surged. Holding a book brings a soothing sense of calmness, fostering love, commitment, and passion. It ignites our imagination, facilitating a silent dialogue with the author and profound contemplation. Newspapers are a cherished ritual in numerous households, evoking cherished memories of elders with a newspaper in hand and a cup of coffee nearby. Even as physical books become less common, let’s appreciate the experience, enjoying the sound of pages turning and the distinct scent of both well-worn and fresh books while they’re still around. It is inevitable that digital books will replace physical ones very soon. In a school set-up, specifically, this will greatly help school children carry one tab, with easy access to multi-medium with a world of information at the tip of their fingers, instead of a load of heavy books. Regardless, it’s important that children read.”

To conclude, physical books are still important in the digital age. They offer several advantages over e-books, including their tactile quality, their ability to be shared, and their connection to the past. One of the main arguments for the sustenance of print is that physical books are important for preserving the cultural and historical heritage of humanity. We must not let the rise of AI and digital tools make us forget the importance of physical books. Together, we can work to create a more literate and informed society.

It is important to sustain physical books for future generations, so that they can continue to benefit from all that they have to offer. Physical books are not only a source of information and entertainment, but also a source of identity and belonging. They are a part of our collective memory and our cultural legacy. They are not obsolete, but rather irreplaceable.

 

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Reimagining Higher Education: Responding to the future of work

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No conversation about education since 2020-2022 was ever complete without mentioning the word “pandemic”. Since 2023, that word has been steadily replaced with “chatGPT”. Nevertheless, the focus has largely been on ensuring that students do not misuse technology on their journey to being educated, a key facet of the problem created by rapidly advancing technology like artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics has not received the same amount of attention. The Future of Work is something most people think they will face when they have to and then go back to the drawing board and add new courses in higher education or K-12. This has been the standard response to new skill requirements. But the Future of Work is more than a bunch of new skills and new designations.

The vista of the future of work emerges as a landscape imbued with transformative shifts and challenges, fundamentally reshaping established paradigms of employment. The conventional trajectory of routine employment confronts disruption, as the relentless advance of automation and artificial intelligence introduces a recalibration of traditional roles. The sanctity of the conventional 9-to-5 office configuration wanes, yielding ground to an increasingly remote and digitally interconnected workforce. The antiquated notion of a lifelong singular career metamorphoses, yielding to a mosaic of adaptable skill sets that synchronise with and respond to the cadence of technological evolution.

In this evolving narrative, organisational hierarchies and occupational designations experience a perceptible transmutation, as the ascendancy of the gig economy propels it into a formidable force. The familiar contours of permanent employment falter in the face of freelancers, remote operators, and nimble entrepreneurs, each wielding the currency of flexibility to their advantage. The historically inviolable demarcation between professional engagement and personal life erodes, engendering a harmonisation of responsibilities seamlessly interwoven with quotidian existence.

The forthcoming age of work is an unclear, highly customisable and constantly transforming mix of possibilities led by the personal and organisational changes mentioned above and the rapid growth of technology, esp. AI. The latter alone promises to leave many familiar jobs redundant by completely automating the same. Most white collar jobs are definitely going to go away and pink and gold collar jobs are also at risk. Blue-collar jobs might be impacted more by robotics in combination with AI leaving them as an expensive option till the price point becomes viable. Hence, counsellors who are advising our youth today, not only need to be better informed about possibilities but also about the longevity of options.

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In this view of vibrant possibilities, we cannot conceive of education in the traditional manner. It is not merely about curricula and styles. While K-12 should continue to focus on teaching the child how to learn and how to immerse oneself with wonder and depth, it behoves higher education (HE) to reimagine itself to be the bridge it has always promised to be (but rarely delivered) between school and industry. While K-12 definitely needs radical changes, HE cannot continue the K-12 model and still expect to be relevant.

Sadly, that is precisely what HE does – K-12 barely gives the student agency or choice in what they should explore and learn and HE forces them to choose after 15 years of no practice in choosing or evaluating and holds them to that choice, forever! A student at the age of 17, with no skills apart from taking tests and exams, is expected to swiftly decide on what they wish to specialise in for the next 4-6 years and then stick to it forever. Most students, hence, think that getting into the top universities is the hack to not being sure so that the network and placement clout of those universities will at least take care of their job requirements. In case they realise that that particular undergraduate degree was not what they wanted to do, they go on to a masters program (typically, an MBA) which allows them to get into some high paying job and so on leaving their undergraduate degree largely pointless and often considered a waste of 4-6 years.

Making such a decision becomes even more prone to error when the world of work is rapidly changing and responding to the unprecedented pace of technological change. In summary, the current model of HE is ineffective and wasteful because:

(a) the system forces a linear thinking process which is a misfit in these times,

(b) HE makes the same mistake as K-12 in packing all that one might need, 10-30 years ago

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(c) students are expected to have immensely clear foresight into what they want to do for the rest of their lives at the age of 17-18 when they were never trained for it, and

(d) despite all of this, graduates emerge as unskilled and unprepared for the market and industry which has moved forward. The competencies that are required are not being provided through the undergraduate years. A better handshake with the industry is required. I definitely see a future where the industry is more invested in the skills and competencies acquired by an individual.

Stanford recently (2015) decided to experiment with the concept of an open loop university (apart from Axis Flip, Purpose-led Education and others). Learn more about the open-loop university idea at http://www.stanford2025.com/open-loop-university

Taking this one step further, is the following idea of a hyperbrid (hyper-hybrid) education (the new HE). The basic tenets are:

  1. Individuals should focus on gaining competencies
  2. Competencies can emerge from mastering skills, conceptual knowledge and/or experience on the field performing work/tasks.
  3. Competencies are universal. A carpenter who can craft a chair for Harvard can do so for NTU, Singapore and can do so for IIT, Bombay. Similarly, one who has the competency to cleanse data for any institute or business can do the same for any other (with the exception of domain peculiarities, which can be picked up on the job). And this competency could be acquired by apprenticing with a top data scientist or via a course at a university.
  4. Competencies are recognised and accredited via microcredentials.
  5. Microcredentials can be combined into meta-competencies.
  6. Meta-competencies and microcredentials can be aggregated into degrees, diplomas, etc. The same competency can be counted towards multiple degrees (as they should be). E.g. My microcredential to research and prepare donor proposals is admissible in my bachelors degree of NGO management as well as bachelors degree of financial communications. I shouldn’t have to go through the course again!
  7. Microcredentials from different awarding institutes/businesses can be combined.
  8. There is no age bar on acquiring microcredentials.

Each of the phases, including the “spaces” (which indicate time outside an institution of higher education), can stretch for different lengths. While each course leading to a microcredential can have limits on duration, the acquisition of microcredentials itself can be a lifelong process. Universities might want to impose other (rational) restrictions like “75% of the microcredentials must be from our university in order to be eligible for a degree certificate bearing our stamp” or “necessary microcredentials must be acquired within a span of 6 years in order to reflect the currency required for this degree” and so on. These are details beyond the scope of an introduction to radically changing higher education.

This schema will be a success and a perfect response to the future of work that looms ahead of us. An individual can graduate from K-12, take a couple of courses from a university that admits her while she also works gigs at places that connect to her purpose or curiosity, complete a year or so of this and decide to work/intern at a firm, acquire experience and microcredentials before returning to a nearby university to study a different set of competencies and so on till she has the skills and experience to work in the domain she is most aligned with.

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To some it might seem like all the universities in a country need to align to this in order for this to even take-off. Stanford has demonstrated that one university and its ability to execute distance-programmes can suffice. This also allows for students who do not want to experiment and are willing to take the risk of putting (nearly) all their eggs in the one basket of a pre-assembled degree programme. This also allows for a student to pick the competencies from the best of places around the country or even around the world (if university requirements and philosophies align). This allows for those who have acquired competencies which were sufficient to do what they wanted to because they will still have earned microcredentials and not be left empty-handed with the title of a “college dropout”. This allows for every university/college to offer a variety of programmes in a cost-effective and efficient manner. It definitely will pave the way for students to not drown in debt and acquire the credentials piecemeal and with surety. This pushes colleges and universities to update and upgrade their course offering to be acceptable as resulting in a competency (whether nationally or internationally). This is bound to improve the level of higher education in India.

This is indeed the way forward. Providing these byte-sized microcredentials to individuals who can acquire, assess, apply and pivot, if required, is the key to building a powerful workforce for the future. India can pioneer this movement and show it can be done. With the industry increasingly hiring for skills rather than degrees, this will increase the employability of our youth, tremendously. These are indeed exciting times.

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Being Human Amidst the Robots

Several early implementations of AI have shown that systems that are developed by highly emotionally
mature individuals

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Most definitions of Emotional Intelligence say that this is a unique “ability to understand, use, and manage one’s own emotions in positive ways to relieve stress, communicate effectively, empathise with others, overcome challenges and defuse conflict.” Several Indian Scriptures refer to the need for a person to attain “Stithapragya” – that loosely translates to “steady wisdom”.

When we superimpose the West-developed model of “Emotional Intelligence” with the Indian model of “Sthithapragya” -, what we see is a wonderful description that defines what it truly means to be human – achieving a steady state of calm resolve that then becomes a guiding force for our own actions. In this millenia of the 21st century, where humans are fast being replaced by “intelligent” robots, it certainly leaves us with the question “Is emotional intelligence a thing of the past?”

Surprisingly, experts say that contrary to what it may appear to be, emotional intelligence gains even
more importance in the current context and will take centre stage in the times that lie ahead. Why?

Here are the top 3 reasons why this becomes perhaps the single most important skill that one requires.
1. While tasks of data collection, analysis and interpretation are fast being replaced by robots, the ability to manoeuvre a way forward on the basis of the interpretations, while taking into account unique contexts requires nuanced levels of understanding that only a human is capable of.
2. Designing systems that are built on AI requires programmers to understand human approaches with reduced biases and more diverse perspectives that may then be fed into building an AI-based system.
3. Leading organisations, even those with significant levels of AI integration, require people who can motivate, influence and create change.

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Several early implementations of AI have shown that systems that are developed by highly emotionally mature individuals, teams and organisations have a far greater impact on the outcomes than those that don’t.

What does this mean for us, as educators?
While mental and emotional wellbeing have come to the forefront over the course of the recent pandemic, and have now entered mainstream curriculum, what now is imperative is that we embark on a journey of developing learning standards, success criteria and intentional planning to integrate these important life skills into all aspects of our overt as well as, our hidden curriculums.

Therein lies the key to this non-negligible life skill. It’s a wake-up call for us, as educators – after all, Rome wasn’t built in a day!

Early exposure to understanding what comprises emotional stability, active listening, self-talk strategies, response mechanisms to counter stress, conflict resolution strategies can and must be taught in schools.

A great resource for those who want to get started on this journey or would like to take a pause to reflect on where you are and get a direction on next steps, do head towards www.casel.org – a collaborative dedicated to Social & Emotional Learning.

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Author – Prabha Dixit, Principal, Akshar Arbol International School

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Celebrating the Heart and Art of Teaching

This 5th September, we pay tribute to the architects of our intellectual evolution, the artists who make learning an enchanting voyage, and the unsung heroes who sculpt the future.

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In the tapestry of human progress, one thread stands out as the most intricate and vital – the art of teaching. As we celebrate Teacher’s Day, it’s a time to reflect on the profound importance of teaching and to honor the dedicated educators who shape the destinies of countless individuals around the globe.

Teaching is a craft, an art, and a science all rolled into one. It’s a journey embarked upon by the fearless, the patient, and the passionate. Beyond the textbooks and lesson plans lies the heart of teaching, a space where connections are forged, minds are ignited, and lives are transformed. It’s the sacred task of lighting the way for the next generation, providing them with the tools to navigate the complex world that awaits.

At the core of civilization’s advancement lies the pivotal role of teachers. From the first lessons in a one-room schoolhouse to the cutting-edge classrooms of today, educators have been the architects of our intellectual evolution. They are the builders of bridges between ignorance and knowledge, fostering curiosity and nurturing the seeds of innovation.

Teaching isn’t merely the transmission of facts; it’s the cultivation of critical thinking, creativity, and character. It’s the art of showing the way, not just through textbooks but through life itself. Teachers don many hats – mentors, counselors, confidants, and inspirations. They are the unwavering guides who champion their students through every triumph and tribulation.

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The Artistry of Teaching

Teaching is an art form in its own right. It involves the delicate balance of imparting knowledge while kindling the flames of curiosity. Every lesson plan is a canvas, every classroom a stage, and every student an eager audience. A teacher’s palette includes patience, empathy, creativity, adaptability, and a deep love for their subject matter.

The artistry of teaching lies in the ability to transform the mundane into the magical, to breathe life into words, and to make learning an exhilarating adventure. It’s the skill of recognizing the unique potential within each student and sculpting that potential into greatness. It’s about fostering an environment where questions are celebrated, mistakes are cherished as stepping stones, and curiosity is nurtured like a rare and precious gem.

Honoring Teachers Worldwide

Teacher’s Day is not just an occasion to celebrate educators in one corner of the world; it’s a global festival of gratitude. Teachers worldwide share a common mission – to shape the future by educating the present. From the vibrant classrooms of India to the serene halls of Europe, from the bustling schools of Africa to the innovative academies of the Americas, teachers are the bedrock of societies.

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Teachers are not just keepers of knowledge; they are also change agents. They are on the front lines of societal transformation. As they inspire and educate their students, they also mold future leaders, scientists, artists, and innovators. Teachers instill values, spark aspirations, and sow the seeds of empathy and compassion in the hearts of their students.

In places where education is a privilege, teachers become beacons of hope, breaking the shackles of ignorance and poverty. They are the ones who believe in the potential of every child, regardless of their circumstances, and work tirelessly to ensure that education is a fundamental right for all.

The Teacher-Student Bond

One of the most magical aspects of teaching is the profound bond that forms between teachers and their students. It’s a relationship built on trust, respect, and the shared pursuit of knowledge. Teachers not only impart wisdom but also serve as mentors, helping students navigate the tumultuous waters of adolescence and adulthood.

The memories of a favorite teacher often linger throughout one’s life. These educators leave an indelible mark, igniting passions, and influencing career choices. The impact of a great teacher is immeasurable, extending far beyond the classroom.

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Never-ending Journey

Each one of us has been a student at some point in life. Let us not forget that teaching is a journey without a final destination. Educators are perpetual learners, constantly adapting to new technologies, evolving curriculum, and changing societal needs. In the digital age, teachers are harnessing the power of technology to connect with students in innovative ways, transcending geographical boundaries.

Teaching is also about resilience. Teachers face numerous challenges, from overcrowded classrooms to limited resources, but they persist because they believe in the transformative power of education. They continue to inspire, uplift, and empower the generations to come.

This 5th September, we pay tribute to the architects of our intellectual evolution, the artists who make learning an enchanting voyage, and the unsung heroes who sculpt the future. Teachers are the torchbearers of civilization, the mentors of dreams, and the architects of a brighter tomorrow. They are the guiding stars that light our way, and their impact extends far beyond the walls of a classroom.

To all the teachers worldwide, thank you for your unwavering dedication, your tireless efforts, and your boundless passion. You are the heartbeat of education, and you make the world a better place, one student at a time.

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Happy Teacher’s Day!

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Re-evaluating the Pedestal: Is Western Education Over-Glorified in India?

One criticism of the current education system in India is its overemphasis on grades and exams

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In the dynamic landscape of India’s education system, the question of whether Western education is over-glorified has become a topic of intense debate. As the nation grapples with the challenges of modernization and globalization, it’s crucial to understand where India may have veered off course in terms of teaching techniques and the perceived glorification of Western education.

India, a country steeped in ancient wisdom and rich cultural heritage, has long been revered as the land of scholars and thinkers. Its traditional Gurukul system of education emphasized holistic learning, character development, and the pursuit of knowledge as a lifelong endeavor. However, with the advent of British colonial rule in the 19th century, India’s education system underwent a significant transformation.

The Influence of Western Education

Under British colonial rule, India’s education system was restructured to mirror the British model. This shift brought in Western-style schools, curricula, and pedagogical approaches. The primary goal was to produce a workforce capable of serving the colonial administration, and this influence left a lasting imprint on India’s education system. It introduced standardized testing, rigid syllabi, and a focus on rote memorization rather than critical thinking.

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The Perceived Benefits of Western Education

Over the years, Western education has been touted as a pathway to economic success and social mobility. It is often seen as a ticket to lucrative careers and a way out of poverty. This perception has fueled the popularity of Western education among Indian students and parents. The exposure to global perspectives and the English language, seen as a gateway to international opportunities, has further bolstered the allure of Western-style education.

Loss of Traditional Teaching Techniques

As Western education took root in India, traditional teaching techniques began to recede into the background. Ancient systems of education that prioritized a deep understanding of subjects, individualized learning, and holistic development started to erode. This loss has been a point of contention for those who argue that India has sacrificed its cultural heritage in pursuit of Western ideals.

Challenges in the Current System

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One criticism of the current education system in India is its overemphasis on grades and exams. Students are often subjected to immense pressure to perform well academically, which can hinder their creativity and overall growth. Additionally, the focus on English-medium education has created a linguistic divide, marginalizing those who do not have access to quality English-language instruction.

The question of whether Western education is over-glorified in India is a complex and multifaceted issue. Western education has undeniably brought numerous benefits, including exposure to global opportunities and the English language. However, it has also led to the erosion of traditional teaching techniques and values deeply ingrained in India’s cultural heritage.

The path forward involves the careful navigation of a delicate balance between Western education’s merits and the profound wisdom of India’s traditional systems. The synergy of these two educational paradigms can forge a new, holistic approach to learning, producing individuals who are not only academically proficient but also deeply rooted in their cultural and spiritual identity.

India’s education system stands at a critical juncture, and the decisions made today will shape the destiny of future generations. By embracing a harmonious coexistence of the old and the new, India can aspire to create a generation of enlightened individuals who are equipped to meet the challenges of the 21st century while preserving the timeless wisdom that is India’s unique heritage.

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Social and Emotional Learning in the Middle School ‘The Dawn of a New Educated Nation’

Various researches and experiments show that SEL programs are effective and play an important role in the holistic development of the child

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Why do we need SEL to grow?

As the world encountered unprecedented challenge and circumstances, it also led to extraordinary initiatives by the Educators. The mentors left no stone unturned to keep the flame of knowledge burning bright to enlighten the students and everyone around. To meet 21st century skills, NEP 2020 was incorporated as it emphasizes on learner centric pedagogy as both the educator and the learner are able to execute, reflect and assess their learning.

The schools are committed to create learners equipped to meet the constantly changing needs and challenges of the world. We strongly believe that there should be no rigid separation between any discipline of study and the use of technology in planning, teaching, learning, assessment, management and regulation will help the students scale the heights of achievements. We encourage the children to dream as dreaming, after all, is a form of planning as imagination creates reality by overcoming the limitations of our minds.


Inclusion of SEL in Pedagogy

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Following the dictum – no two students are alike, Pedagogy concentrates on the different learning styles in the query to quench the learning requirement of each student and to create lessons that help them learn in the best way with Visual -Spatial, Linguistic-Verbal, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Logical-Mathematical, Musical, Naturalistic activities.

We all want our children to become knowledgeable, responsible and caring adults and realize that schools play an important role in achieving this goal.

Experience and research show that by focusing on Social and Emotional Development (SEL) of children , each challenge can be achieved up to some degree. In today’s economy, SEL competencies are essential for all students’ long-term success. Furthermore, SEL program not only improves academic achievement but also reduces the incidents of misbehavior. Plus, there is the added benefit of school and class becoming a fun and rewarding place for the child.

‘’SEL program not only improves academic achievement but also reduces the incidents of misbehavior’’


Introducing SEL in the school

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These skills are at the core of SEL programs for middle school.

  • Self-Awareness: Recognizing emotions and their effect on behavior
  • Self-Management: Regulating emotions, thoughts, and behaviors; managing stress, setting goals, and staying motivated
  • Responsible Decision-Making: Making constructive decisions in social situations based on ethics, safety, and social norms
  • Relationship Skills: Developing positive relationships with diverse groups and individuals; communicating clearly and cooperating with others
  • Social Awareness: Empathizing and understanding the views of others, including those of other cultures or backgrounds

  SEL introduction required specific approach, many activities and discussions had to be changed.


Application

Realization that they are not alone made empathizing easy. This boosted their confidence and self-esteem, which had a positive impact on their academic achievement. They also demonstrated improved classroom behavior as well as a greater ability to cope with stress and depression. A learner who recognizes and respects his or her emotions is a better-adjusted individual who will also recognize and appreciate others. 

‘’SEL Students demonstrated improved classroom behavior as well as a greater ability to cope with stress and depression’’

Researches show statistically significant associations between SEL skills in formative years and key outcomes for young adults years later. 

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Conclusion

We believe in structuring opportunities for SEL to “learning by doing,” we not only connect theory to practice, but simply design experiential learning programs with a trans-disciplinary approach and explicit attention to the kinds of relationships we intend to enable or create. Our carefully chosen objectives are supported by reflection, critical analysis and synthesis and are structured to motivate the students to take initiatives, make decisions and be accountable for results. Throughout the student is actively engaged in posing questions, investigating, experimenting, being curious, solving problems, assuming responsibility and being creative. In the process, relationships are developed and nurtured as the students are engaged intellectually and emotionally.

A key resource, which helped in developing SEL, is The Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL). It has information about high-quality, evidence-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programs. With the support of their fundamental framework, one can build a curriculum that considers the school’s environmental and psychosocial variables. 

Various researches and experiments show that SEL programs are effective and play an important role in the holistic development of the child. Then why are the schools so complacent in giving it a try? Shouldn’t we use a proven preventive measure before it becomes too late?

 Author  Nisha Pareek, Junior & Middle Section Coordinator, Birla Balika Vidyapeeth

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